Environmental Science Vocabulary

174 terms by Chris27142626 

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Vocab terms and definitions for vocab test on 2/4/11.

Indicator Organisms

Organisms that indicate particular conditions.

Succession

The sequence of changes in a plant community over time.

Soil Horizon

The horizontal layer(s) into which many soils are organized.

Weathering

Process in which rock is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces.

Urban Heat Sink

Local heat buildup in an area with low population.

Global Warming

Process in which global temperatures rise due to a variety of factors, resulting in environmental conflict.

Chaparral

A biome with a Mediterranean climate.

Endangered

Species at risk for extinction.

Threatened

Species at risk for endangerment.

Critical Habitat

Habitat created for the rehabilitation of threatened and endangered species.

Restoration

The process of returning a degraded environment as close as possible to its former, undisturbed state.

Brownfield

An urban area of abandoned: vacant factories, warehouses, and residential sites that may be contaminated.

Biomagnification

The increasing concentration of a substance in the tissues of an organism at higher levels of the food chain.

Bioremediation

A method employed to clean up a hazardous waste site that uses micro-organisms to break down toxic pollutants.

Pioneer Species

Species that initially colonized a particular area.

Boreal Forest

A region of coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.

Industrial Revolution

The shift in the mid-1700's from rural life to urban.

Sustainable Resources

Resources that can meet the needs of the present without compensating future needs.

GAIA Theory

The collective name for a series of hypotheses that Earth's organisms adjust the environment to keep it habitable for life.

Thomas Malthus

British economist that pointed out that population growth isn't always desirable.

Environmentalism

The concern of environmental quality.

Rachel Carson

Wrote about interrelationships among living organisms, including humans, and the natural environment.

Paradigm

A dominant philosophical and theoretical framework within a scientific discipline.

Chemoautotrophic Hypothesis

Hypothesis stating that an organism obtains nourishment through the oxidation of inorganic chemicals.

Montreal Protocol

International negotiations that resulted in a timetable to phase out CFC production.

Kyoto Protocol

An international treaty that stipulates that highly developed countries must cut their emissions of CO2 and other gases that cause climate warming by an averaged 5.2% by 2012.

Clean Air Act

Took place in 1970 to set stricter standards for air quality; Revised in 1990.

World View

One of many perspectives based on a collection of our basic values.

Relativist

An ethicist who maintains that do and should vary with social context.

Universalist

An ethicist who maintains that there exist objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and situations.

Anthropo Centrism

A human-centered view of our relationship with the environment.

Ecocentrism

A philosophy that considers actions in terms of their damage or benefit to the integrity of whole ecological systems.

Transcendentalism

Movement that called on people to view objects in the world as small versions of the whole universe, and to trust their individual institutions.

Resource Partitioning

The reduction in competition for environmental resources that occurs among coexisting species as a result of each species' niche differing from the others in one or more ways.

Niche

The totality of an organism's adaptations, its use of resources, and the lifestyle to which it's fitted.

Saprophytes

Organisms that feed on dead matter; Aids in decomposition process.

Amensalism

A relationship between members of different species in which one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected.

Commensalism

A relationship between members of different species in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.

Mutualism

A relationship in which all participating organisms benefit from their interaction.

Hypoxia

The condition of extremely low dissolved oxygen concentrations in a body of water.

Transboundary Sewage

Sewage that is generated in one country, but able to cause harm in another.

Heterotrophic Hypothesis

Idea that life evolved from a primordial soup of simple inorganic chemicals.

Extraterrestrial Hypothesis

Modification to heterotrophic hypothesis in which early chemical reactions had help from outer space.

Artificial Selection

Natural selection conducted under human direction.

OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation)

The generation of electricity from ocean temperature gradients.

Immigration

A type of dispersal in which individuals enter a population and thus increase its size.

Emigration

A type of dispersal in which individuals leave a population and thus decrease its size.

Type I Survivorship

Survivorship curve in which probability of death is greater later in life.

Type II Survivorship

Survivorship curve in which probability of survival does not change with age.

Type III Survivorship

Survivorship curve in which probability of death is greater earlier in life.

Enzymes

Any of various proteins originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes through catalytic action.

Biotic Potential

Potential for growth of a population under certain conditions.

IPAT Model

Model that shows the mathematical relationship between environmental impacts and the forces that drive them. (Number of people, affluence per person, environmental effects of technologies, etc).

Phylogenetic Tree

A tree-like diagram that represents the history of divergence of species or other taxonomic groups of organisms.

Disruptive Selection

Describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values.

Directional Selection

A particular mode of natural selection when it favors a single phenotype over others.

K-T Mass Extinction

A large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically short period of time that occurred about 65.5 million years ago.

Age Structure Diagram

Diagram representing the number and proportion of people at each age in a population.

Density-Dependent

Meaning that it affects population as population changes.

Keystone Species

A species that is crucial in determining the nature and structure of the entire ecosystem in which it lives.

Umbrella Species

Species selected for making conservation-related decisions.

Negative Feedback Loop

A situation in which a change in some condition triggers a response that counteracts, or reverses, the changed condition.

Positive Feedback Loop

A situation in which a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the condition.

Biosphere

All of Earth's organisms and their interactions with each other, the land, the water, and the atmosphere.

Nitrogen Cycle

The circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil.

Phosphate Cycle

The biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere

Carbon Cycle

•Sequence of transformations whereby carbon dioxide is converted to organic forms by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, recycled through the biosphere (with partial incorporation into sediments), and ultimately returned to its original state through respiration or combustion.

Net Productivity

Energy that remains in an ecosystem after cellular respiration has occurred.

First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can change from one form to another.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

When energy is converted from one form to another, some of it is degraded into heat, a less-usable form that disperses into the environment.

Watershed

A land area that delivers water into a stream or river system.

Hydrosphere

Earth's supply of water. (All forms).

Lithosphere

The soil and rock of Earth's crust.

Mantle

The malleable layer of rock that lies beneath Earth's crust and surrounds a mostly iron core.

Crust

The lightweight outer layer of the Earth, consisting of rock that floats atop the malleable mantle, which in turn surrounds a mostly iron core.

Clay

The smallest inorganic soil particles.

Humus

Black or dark brown decomposed organic material.

Silt

Medium-sized inorganic soil particles.

Sand

Inorganic soil particles that are larger than silt or clay.

John Muir

Scottish immigrant to the United States who eventually settled in California. Most strongly associated with the "preservation ethic."

UNCLOS

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. International agreement that resulted from the 3rd Law of the Sea Convention which occurred from 1973 to 1982.

Acute Toxicity

Adverse effects that occur within a short period after exposure to the accident.

Chronic Toxicity

Adverse effects that occur after a long period of exposure to a toxicant.

LD-50

The amount of toxicant it takes to kill 50% of a population of test animals.

R-Selected Species

Species that typically have a small body size, rapid development, short life span, and devotes a large proportion of its metabolic energy to the production of offspring.

K-Selected Species

Species that typically have a large body size, slow development, long life span, and does not devote a large proportion of its metabolic energy to the production of offspring.

Ecotones

Transitional zones where ecosystems meet.

Convergent

Area where plate tectonics collide

Divergent

Area where plate tectonics are divided and pushed apart.

Transform

Area where two tectonic plates meet and slip and grind alongside one another.

Plate

A rigid layer of the earth's crust that is believed to drift slowly.

Cartagena Protocol

An international agreement on biosafety that regulated the trade of genetically engineered products.

Madrid Protocol

The primary international system for facilitating the registration of trademarks in multiple jurisdictions around the world.

Desertification

A loss of more than 10% of a land's productivity due to erosion, soil compactation, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salinization, climate change, etc.

Intercropping

Planting different types of crops in alternating bands or other spatially mixed organisms.

Urban Ecology

A scientific field that views cities explicitly as ecosystems.

Benthic

Of, relating to, or living on the bottom of a body of water.

Littoral

Of, relating to, or living along shorelines between the highest reach of the highest tide, and the lowest reach of the lowest tide.

Terracing

A soil conservation method that involves building dikes on hilly terrain to produce level, terraced areas for agriculture.

Aquaculture

The rearing of aquatic organisms, either freshwater or marine, for human consumption.

Endocrine Disrupter

A chemical that interferes with the actions of the endocrine system.

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; a chlorine-containing organic compount that has insecticidal properties.

Profundal Zone

The deepest zone of a large lake.

Limnetic

The open-water area away from the shore of a lake or a pond that extends as far as the sunlight penetrates.

Polyculture

A type of intercropping in which several kinds of plants that mature at different times are planted together.

Reduced Tillage

Tillage types that leave 15-30 percent residue cover after planting.

Transgenic

Of, pertaining to, or containing a gene or genes transferred from another species.

GMO

Genetically Modified Organism; An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

Integrated Pest Management

An agricultural pest control strategy that utilizes a variety of complementary strategies among others. (I.e. Cultural Management, Chemical Management, etc).

Atrazine

A triazine herbicide that inhibits photosynthesis.

FIFRA

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act; U.S. federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.

Biodiversity Hot Spots

Areas that support an especially great diversity of species, particularly those that are endemic to the area.

Red List

An updated list of species facing unusually high risks of extinction.

Marine Reserves

Areas of the ocean designated as "no-fishing" zones, allowing no extractive activities.

Dam

Any obstruction placed in a river or stream to block the flow of water so that the water can be stores in a reservoir.

Upwelling

A rising ocean current that transports colder, nutrient-laden water to the surface.

Continental Shelves

The submerged, relatively flat ocean bottoms that surround continents.

Methane Hydrates

Reserves of ice-encrusted natural gas located in porous rock in the arctic tundra.

Bycatch

Unwanted fish, dolphins, and sea-turtles that are caught along with commercially valuable fishes and then dumped, dead or dying, back into the ocean.

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyls; Chlorine-containing organic compounds that enjoyed a wide variety of industrial uses until their dangerous properties were recognized.

Ozone

O3; A blue gas with a distinctive odor. Human-made pollutant in the troposphere; Important for stratosphere.

CO

Carbon Monoxide; Poisonous and reduces the blood's ability to transport oxygen.

CO2

Carbon Dioxide; Greenhouse gas; Buildup associated with global warming.

CITES

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species; Aimed to ensure that trade of specimens did not threaten their survival.

No Fly Zones

Territories in which aircraft is not permitted to fly.

Levees

A natural or artificial slope or wall to regulate water levels.

Dike

A natural or artificial slope or wall to regulate water levels.

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbon; Chemical compound that depletes ozone.

Dinoflagellate

Large group of flagellate protists; Contributes to red tide through forming toxic blooms.

Biodiesel

Diesel fuel produced by mixing vegetable oil, used cooking grease, or animal fat with small amounts of ethanol or methanol in the presence of a chemical catalyst.

Wastewater

Any water that is used in households, businesses, industries, or public facilities, and is drained or flushed down pipes. (I.e. run-off).

Ecological Footprint

The cumulative amount of land and water required to provide the raw materials a person or population consumes and to dispose of or recycle the waste that is produced.

Gray Water

Waste-water generated from domestic activities. (i.e. laundry, dishwashing, bathing).

BTU

British Thermal Unit; Unit of amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree fahrenheit at one atmospheric pressure.

VOC

Volatile Organic Compound; Organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapor pressures under normal conditions to vaporize and enter Earth's atmosphere.

Xeriscape

Landscaping and gardening in ways that reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental irrigation.

Manganese Nodule

A small rock that contains manganese and other minerals. Common on the ocean floor.

Geothermal Power

The natural heat within the Earth that arises from ancient heat within Earth's core.

Photovoltaic Cells

Wafers or thin-filmed devices that generate electricity when solar energy is absorbed.

Passive/Solar Energy

Energy conducted by using the sun's energy without requiring mechanical devices to distribute collected heat.

Synfuel

A liquid or gaseous fuel synthesized from coal, (or other naturally occurring sources), and used in place of oil or natural gas.

Coal

A black combustible solid found in Earth's crust.

Natural Gas

A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons that occur in Earth's crust.

Fossil Fuel

Combustible deposits in Earth's crust.

SLOSS

Single Large or Several Small dilemma; The debate over whether it is better to make reserves larger in size and few in number, or many in number but small in size.

Septic Systems

A wastewater disposal method, common in rural areas, consisting of an underground tank and series of drain pipes.

Desalinization

The removal of salt from ocean or brackish, (somewhat salty), water.

Confined Aquifer

A groundwater storage area trapped between two impermeable layers of rock.

Ogallala Aquifer

A massive groundwater deposit under either mid-western states.

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