Sugar that encompasses the monomer monosaccharides, small polymers called oligosaccharides, and large polymers called polysaccharides. They are molecules formed from a carbonyl (C=O) group, several hyrdroxyl (-OH) groups, and several carbon-hydrogen bonds. They serve as raw materials for synthesizing other molecules, provide fibrous structural material, indicate cell identity, and store chemical energy.
A simple sugar. A aldehyde sugar is made if the carbonyl group is at one end of the molecule (aldose). A ketone sugar is made if the carbonyl group is in the midsection of the molecule (ketose).
Five-carbon sugars (example: ribose)
Six-carbon sugars (example: glucose that moves around in our bloodstreams)
Polymers that result when monosaccharides are linked together through condensation. Also known as complex carbohydrates.
Polysaccharide made by two monosaccharides.
Covalent bond that forms between two monosaccharides when a condensation reaction takes place. They form alpha-linkages which are easy for enzymes to break, and beta-linkages which are difficult for enzymes to break.
Consists entirely of alpha-glucose molecules that are joined by glycosidic linkages (alpha-linkages 1,4) . Performs storage role in plants such as in potatoes.
Performs energy storage role in animals such as in muscles and the liver. Joined by alpha-linkages 1,4. Highly branched helices.
Used for structural support in cell walls of plants and many algae. Joined by beta-linkages 1,4. Parallel strands joined by hydrogen bonds.
Used for structural support in the cell wall of fungi and the external skeleton of insects and crustaceans. Joined by beta-linkages 1,4. Parallel strands joined by hydrogen bonds.
Used for structural support in bacterial cell walls. Joined by beta-linkages 1,4. Parallel strands joined by peptide bonds.
Protein that is covalently bonded to a carbohydrate- usually an oligosaccharide.
Enzyme involved in catalyzing the hydrolysis of alpha-glycosidic linkages in glycogen.
Enzyems involved in breaking alpha-glycosidic linkages in starch.