Wars of Religion
Wars in which England, France, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire fought mainly about religion, but social, economical, and political questions were also involved.
Portuguese navigator. 1498: rounded Africa and landed on Malabar Coast
first governor general under which permanent fortified stations were built for the Portuguese empire.
St. Francis Xavier
with the Jesuits, baptized millions in India, Indonesia, and Japan by 1550.
Circumnavitaged the world in 1520-1522
Treaty of 1494
Treaty of Tordesillas. Split the world between Portugal and Spain. West to Spain, East to Portugal.
Warlike gentry left idle at the end of the war with Moors. Turned to the New World to make a fortune
prevents cruelty of the native americans. Gives them a small plot of land.
Thoughts of other European countries against Spain in the New World
500,000 pounds of silver, and 10,000 pounds of gold flowed from it annually. In Peru.
mixed white and Indian descent.
University of Lima
one of the first universities in the new world. Founded in 1551.
personal objects of value owned by someone
merchants that became bankers and rich with the new type of long-distance trading
The steady rise in prices
Rich banking family in Germany. Also dealt with spices, silks, and other eastern goods
Favorable balance of trade
Raise exports of finished goods, reduce exports of raw materials, and curtail all imports except of needed raw materials
lending or practice of lending money with interest
Producers (spinners, weavers, hatters, metal workers, gunsmiths, glassworkers) worked to fill orders of merchants
Statute of Artificers of 1563
regulated admission to apprenticeship and level of wages in various trades. Guilds ceased to have importance in England.
restricted free trade. Mercantilists wanted to get rid of them.
Chartered trading companies
Merchants and their respective governments came together to found official companies for the transocean trade.
compositions, functions, and interrelationships of social classes
small class of freeholders developed between the landed gentry and the rural poor
English Poor Law of 1601
charitable relief also developed toward the end of the sixteenth century
the former feudal class, or nobles
combined the work of the English grammar school with what corresponded to the first year or two of university work at Oxford or Cambridge.
founded in Italy in 1535, educated girls.
of northeast Germany. Lived modestly, but enjoyed independence and social superiority
another name for serfdom. Hereditary subjects were the same as serfs
Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs
The Habsburg dynasty split between the two.
Siglo de oro
1550-1650: Spains Golden Age of culture
Philip II built himself a royal residence 30 miles away from Madrid.
Duke of Alva
along with reinforcements and Inquisition went to kill heretics of the Netherlands of Spanish rule
Council of Troubles
sentenced thousands to death, levied new taxes, and confiscated estates of a number of important nobles
William of Orange
lieutenant for Philip II in the County of Holland
Leader of England that helped the Netherlands
Duke of Norfolk
Led the Catholics of Northern England in rebellion
1571, great naval battle of the Spanish of the coast of Greece
Mary Queen of Scots
next in line to the British crown due to Elizabeth's no kids
1576 Don Juan
Governor General; His goal was to use Netherlands as a base to attack England
Prince of Parma
suceeded Don Juan. Broke the unity of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands
Union of Utrecht
Seven northern formed it in 1579 in response to Parma breaking the unity
United Provinces of the Netherlands
Formerly declared independence from Spain in 1581 (7 provinces)
Spanish Armada; 1588
1609 Twelve Years Truce
truce between Netherlands and Spanish Dutch