Medterms Final Exam

249 terms by Rachellesmith7

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word root

the word part that is the core of the word and contains the fundamental meaning of the word.

prefix

a word part attached to the beginning of a word root to modify its meaning.

suffix

a word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning.

combining vowel

a word part, usually an o, used to ease pronunciation. (not placed to connect a prefix and word root)

cell

basic unit of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells, which vary in size and shape according to function.

abdominal cavity

space containing the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and ureters

thoracic cavity

space containing the heart, aorta, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and bronchi

pelvic cavity

space containing the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, parts of the small and large intestine, and the rectum.

nucleus

largest structure within the cell, usually spherical and centrally located. It contains chromosomes for cellular reproduction and is the control center of the cell.

tissues

group of similar cells that performs a specific function

organ

two or more kinds of tissues that together perform special body functions. For example, the skin is an organ composed of epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve tissue.

hist/o

tissue

my/o

muscle

viscer/o

internal organs

sarc/o

flesh, connective tissue

onc/o

tumor, mass

carcin/o

cancer (a disease characterized by the unregulated, abnormal growth of new cells)

chrom/o

color

erythr/o

red

sarcoma

tumor of connective tissue (such as bone or cartilage) (highly malignant)

myoma

tumor composed of muscle (benign)

carcinoma

cancerous tumor (malignant)

lipoma

tumor composed of fat (benign tumor)

malignant

tending to become progressively worse and to cause death, as in cancer

benign

not malignant, nonrecurrent, favorable for recovery

exacerbation

increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms

diagnosis

state of complete knowledge (identifying a disease)

prognosis

state of before knowledge (prediction of the outcome of disease)

histology

study of tissue

oncology

study of tumors (a branch of medicine concerned with the study of malignant tumors)

carcinogenic

producing cancer

metastasis (mets) (pl. metastases)

beyond control (spread of disease from one organ to another, as in the transfer of malignant tumors)

cyanosis

abnormal condition of blue (bluish discoloration of the skin caused by inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood)

pathology

study of disease (a branch of medicine dealing with the study of the causes of disease and death)

visceral

pertaining to the internal organs

erythrocyte, leukocyte

red (blood) cell, white (blood) cell

caud/o

tail (downward)

ventr/o

belly (front)

dist/o

away (from the point of attachment of a body part)

lateral

pertaining to a side

proximal

pertaining to the near (to the point of attachment of a body part)

cephalad

toward the head (upward)

medial

pertaining to the middle

dorsal

pertaining to the back

distal

pertaining to away (from the point of attachment of a body part)

unilateral

pertaining to one side (only)

bilateral

pertaining to two sides

inferior

pertaining to below

sagittal plane

vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left sides (any plane parallel to the midsaggital plane)

coronal (frontal) plane

vertical field passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions

transverse plane

horizontal field dividing the body into superior and inferior portions

midsagittal plane

vertical field running through the body from front to back at the midline, dividing the body equally into right and left halves

parasagittal plane

vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into unequal left and right sides

four abdominopelvic quadrants

The abdominopelvic cavity divided into 4 parts. Right Upper, Left Upper, Right Lower, Left Lower

right upper quadrant (RUQ)

refers to the area encompassing the right lobe of the liver, the gallbladder, part of the pancreas, and portions of the small and large intestines

left upper quadrant (LUQ)

refers to the area encompassing the left lobe of the liver, the stomach, the spleen, part of the pancreas, and portions of the small and large intestines

right lower quadrant (RLQ)

refers to the area encompassing portions of the small and large intestines, the appendix, the right ureter, and the right ovary and uterine tube in women or the right spermatic duct in men

left lower quadrant (LLQ)

refers to the area encompassing portions of the small and large intestines, the left ureter, and the left ovary and uterine tube in women or the left spermatic duct in men

nasal septum

partition separating the right and left nasal cavities

pharynx

serves as food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus; (also called the throat)

larynx

location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx (also called the voice box)

trachea

passageway for air to the bronchi (also called the windpipe)

bronchus

one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree; therefore, they are referred to as a bronchial tree.

adenoids

lymphoid tissue located behind the nasal cavity

alveolus

air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries.

tonsils

lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth.

diaphragm

muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process by contracting and pulling air in, then relaxing and pushing air out.

rhin/o

nose

thorac/o

thorax (chest)

pulmon/o

lung

orth/o

straight

spir/o

breathe, breathing

-algia

pain

-scope

instrument used for visual examination

-centesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid (with a sterile needle)

hemothorax

blood in the chest (pleural space)

pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis

inflammation of the pharynx, inflammation of the larynx, inflammation of the tonsils

asthma

respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath, which is caused by constriction of airways that is reversible between attacks.

emphysema

stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity

epistaxis

nosebleed (synonymous with rhinorrhagia)

pertussis

highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (also called whooping cough)

obstructive sleep apnea

repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, which leads to absence of breathing; can produce daytime drowsiness and elevated blood pressure

capnometer

instrument used to measure carbon dioxide(levels in expired gas)

arterial blood gases

a test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases present

rhinorrhea

discharge from the nose (as in a cold)

dyspnea

difficult breathing

pneumothorax

air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung (often a result of an open chest wound)

pyothorax

pus in the chest (pleural space) (also called empyema)

nebulizer

device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment

bronchodilator

agent causing the bronchi to widen

asphyxia

deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation

cough

sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs

patent

open, the opposite of closed or compromised, thus allowing passage of air, as in patent trachea and bronchi(can be applied to any tubular passageway in the body, as in a patent artery, allowing passage of blood)

aspirate

to withdraw fluid or suction fluid; also to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract

tuberculosis

an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs

atria

Upper chambers of the heart, the right atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins; the left atrium receives blood from the lungs.

ventricles

lower chambers of the heart, the left ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs.

mitral valve

atrioventricular valve of the heart that lies between the left atrium and left ventricle, keeps blood flowing in one direction

tricuspid valve

atrioventricular valve of the heart that lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle, keeps blood flowing in one direction.

pulmonary valve

semilunar valve of the heart located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

aortic valve

semilunar valve of the heart located between the left ventricle and the aorta

pericardium

two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. It consists of two layers, one lining the fibrous pericardium and one covering the heart, called epicardium.

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells. In contrast, the pulmonary artery carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.

veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

plasma

clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume.

erythrocytes

red blood cells that carry oxygen. __________ develop in bone marrow.

leukocytes

white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.

spleen

located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm. In adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Blood, rather than lymph, flows through the spleen. Blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen. The spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.

angi/o

vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)

cardi/o

heart

phleb/o

vein

thromb/o

clot

tachy

fast, rapid

brady

slow

sclerosis

hardening

pericarditis

inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

dysrhythmia

irregular heartbeat (arrythmia)

arrythmia

any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern

aneurysm

ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall

cardiac arrest

sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

hemophilia

inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII

myocardial infarction

death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called heart attack)

leukemia

malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow

infectious mononucleosis

an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva.

anemia

reduction in the number of red bloods cells. _______ may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.

electrocardiogram

record of the electrical activity of the heart

sphygmomanometer

device used for measuring blood pressure

exercise stress test

a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising.

Doppler ultrasound

a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities

cardiology

study of the heart (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart and blood vessels)

hypothermia

condition of (body) temperature that is below (normal) (sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery)

diastole

phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading)

systole

phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading)

pulse

the rhythmic expansion of an artery that can be felt with a finger. The pulse is most commonly felt over the radial artery; however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral and carotid arteries.

anaphylaxis

an exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to a previously encountered antigen such as bee venom, peanuts, or latex. Symptoms range from mild, with patients experiencing hives or sneezing, to severe symptoms such as drop in blood pressure and blockage of the airway, which can lead to death within minutes (also called anaphylactic shock).

infection

the presence of bacteria or a virus into the body causing the immune system to fight back, Contamination or invasion of body tissue by pathogenic organisms

diaphysis, epiphysis

shaft of the long bone, end of each long bone

compact bone

dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum

yellow marrow

soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones

red marrow

thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation

periosteum

outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue

cervical vertebrae

first set of seven bones, forming the neck

thoracic vertebrae

second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.

lumbar vertebrae

third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine

clavicle

collarbone

maxilla

upper jawbone

mandible

lower jawbone

scapula

shoulder blade

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