Quantum Mechanical Model
a model that explains how electrons exist in atoms and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties of elements.
Wave Particle Duality
a postulate which states that all matter has both components of a wave and a particle. For example, light.
a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields.
a region of space where an electrically charged particle experiences a force.
a region of space where a magnetic particle experiences a force.
vertical height of a crest, or depth of a trough.
distance between the adjacent crests, or two analogous points of wave.
number of cycles that pass through a stationary point in a given period of time.
Includes all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
form of electromagnetic radiation with the shortest wavelength. Produced by the sun, other stars, and certain unstable atomic nuclei on Earth.
How waves interact with each other with the ability to cancel each other out, or build each other up.
The result of 'in phase' waves; when waves with overlapping crests align, the amplitude of the final wave is doubled.
the result of 'out of phase' waves; when crest aligns with trough. Ultimately, the waves cancel each other.
The process of a wave bending to pass an obstacle or slit that is comparable in size to its wavelength.
the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them.
The minimum frequency required for metal electrons to undergo the photoelectric effect.
Also a quantum, or a packet of light.
study of electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms.
a series of bright lines of color specific to a certain element when decomposed with a prism.
the mirror image of the Emission Spectrum; produced when light is passed through a sample of the element and observing the missing wavelengths. Appears as a series of dark lines on a bright canvas.
The more you know about one, the less you know about the other.
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
States that the more precisely you know an electron's position, the less precisely you know its velocity
means that the present determines the future.
The inability to predict the outcome of a process that is done identically each time.
Principal Quantum Number
represented by n, is an integer that determines the overall size and energy of an orbital. Possible values consist of integers equal to or greater than 1.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
represented by l; determines the shape of an orbital. Values of l are (n-1) integers greater than or equal to 0. The values of each number correspond to the letters s, p, d, and f.
Magnetic Quantum Number
represented by ml; the integer values from -l to +l.
the probability of finding the electron at a point in space.
Radial Distribution Function
represents the total probability of finding the electron within a thin spherical shell at a distance r from the nucleus.
areas in an orbital where probability density, radial distribution function and wave function all equal zero. As the principal quantum number's value increases for a specific magnetic quantum number, the amount of nodes that can be found increases.
The sign of the amplitude of a wave.