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Radical Allylic Bromination

NBS, CCl4, Hv

Sn2 Reactivity of Allylic halides

CH2=CHCH2X + Nu- + HoAc

Allylic Gringard Reagents

Mg, (CH3CH2)2O

Allyllithium Reagents

CH3CH2CH2CH2Li, TMEDA

hydrogenation of Conjugated dienes

H2, Pd-C, CH3CH2OH

Diels- Alder Reaction

diene + dienophile + heat

Halogenation of benzene

X2, FeX3

NItration of benzene

HNO3, H2SO2

sulfonation of benzene

SO3, H2SO4

desulfonation of benzene

H2SO4, H2O, heat

Friedel Crafts Alkylation

AlCL3, RX

Friedel Crafts Acylation

RC=OCL 1. AlCl3 2. H2O, H3O+

Ortho para directing groups

Activating: NH2, OH, NCOR, OR, alkyl, aryl Deactivating: Halogen

Meta directing groups

Deactivating: N+(CH3)3, NO2, CF3, CN, SO3H, CHO, COR, COOH, COOR, CONH2

Converting Nitro (NO2, meta) to Amino (NH2, ortho para) Group

HCL, ZN, NI,

Converting Nitro(NH2, ortho para) to Nitro(NO2, meta)

CF3CO3H

Acyl (RC=O) to alkyl

H2, Pd, CH3CH2OH

Alkyl to Acyl (RC=O)

CrO3, H2SO4, H2O

protection of nitro groups (NH2 -> HNC=OCH3)

forward: CH3C=OCL, pyridine Backward: H30+, H2O or -OH, H2O

Oxidation of Alcohols to aldehydes

PCC, CH2Cl3

Oxidation of alcohols to ketones

CrO3, H2SO4

Hydration of alkenes to ketones

H2O, Hg2+, H2SO4

Addition of Organometallic compounds

RMgX + formaldehyde + THF -> primary alcohol
RMgX + Aldehyde + THF -> secondary alcohol
RMgX + Ketone + THF -> tertiary alcohol

Hemiacetals

ROH, H30+ or ROH, NaOH (added to ketones)

Acetals

H30+, 2ROH (added to ketones)

Thioacetals formation

BF3 or ZNCl2, (CH3CH2)2O

Thioacetals Hydrolysis

H2O, HgCl2, CaCO3, CH3CN

Raney Nickel Desulfurization

Raney Ni, H2

Addition of amine derivatives (ketone to Imine)

RNH2, H

Formation of Enamines

ketone + secondary amine -> enamine + H20

Wolff-Kishner Reduction

H2NNH2, H20, NaOH

Cyanohydrins

ketone + HCN

wittig reaction

ketone + alkene + THF -> allylic + ketone etc.

Baeyer- Villiger Oxidation

Ketone + RC=OOOH + CH2Cl -> ester + RC=OOH

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