Name a nicotinic receptor agonist.
Name a muscarinic receptor agonist.
Name a nicotinic receptor antagonist.
Name a muscarinic receptor antagonist.
Name an alpha-1 receptor agonist.
Name a non-selective irreversible alpha antagonist.
Name a non-selective Beta-agonist.
Name a beta receptor antagonist.
Name 2 types of glutamate receptors.
Name a AMPA agonist.
Name a AMPA antagonist.
Name a NMDA agonist.
Name a NMDA antagonist.
Name 2 types of GABA receptors.
Name a receptor for glycine.
Name a glycine receptor agonist.
Name a glycine receptor antagonist.
Name the 2 main mechanisms by which glutamate is removed from the synaptic cleft.
diffusion into the presynaptic nerve terminal
uptake by glial cells (astrocytes)
Briefly describe uptake of glutamate by the glial cell.
Glutamate is taken into the astrocyte by a glutamate transporter. It is converted into glutamine by glutamine synthetase and then sent to the presynaptic nerve terminal by glutamine transporters. It undergoes reactions in the presynaptic nerve terminals to be converted back to glutamate.
What type of receptors are found on muscle cells?
What type of receptors are found on the organ walls for the PNS?
ACh acts on _____ receptors in salivary, lacrimal, and other exocrine glands to _____ fluid and enzyme secretion.
ACh acts on _____ receptors in smooth muscle cells in gut walls, iris, ciliary body, bronchiolar muscle and bladder to _____ contraction.
ACh acts on _____ receptors in cells in stomach to _____ acid secretion.
ACh acts on _____ receptors in cardiac pacemaker to cause _____.
slowing of heart
ACh acts on _____ and _____ receptors in cerebral cortex and hippocampus to produce excitatory responses.
ACh acts on _____ receptors in cerebral cortex and hippocampus to produce inhibitory responses.
Most actions of ACh in brain are at _____ receptors. However, _____ receptors are found in terminals of the "brain reward circuit."
Fall in intracellular [cAMP] causes _____ of Ca2+ channels.
Cholinergic neurons _____ cardiac pacemaker cells.
Describe how postganglionic cholinergic neurons stimulate exocrine glands and smooth muscle contraction.
Describe how cholinergic neurons inhibit cardiac pacemaker cells through an indirect route.
Noradrenaline acts on _____ receptors in the heart to promote enhanced heart rate and contraction.
Catecholamines act on _____ receptors in bronchioles to promote relaxation of smooth muscle.
Catecholamines act on _____ receptors in blood vessels to promote vasoconstriction.
Describe how postganglionic sympathetic neurons excite cardiac muscle.
Postganglionic sympathetic neurons _____ cardiac muscle.
Why does acetylcholine affect heart rate but not the strength of contraction?
Postganglionic fibers do not end on the ventricles--only on the pacemaker.
How does noradrenaline affect the heart in comparison to acetylcholine?
Both increase heart rate, but only noradrenaline increases contractility.
Sympathetic neurons release _____ onto sweat glands. There are _____ receptors in the secretory cells.
Dopamine has _____ and _____ receptors.
Dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia make projections that are involved in _____.
Dopaminergic neurons in the _____ make projections on the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and frontal lobe. They are responsible for _____.
D1 receptors are _____ receptors that facilitate rise in cAMP. This is associated with excitation.
D2 receptors mediate their actions by reducing _____. This is associated with inhibition.
What type of drugs are administered for Parkinson's disease?
Dopamine agonists on D2 (and D1) receptors in the basal ganglia
What type of drugs are used to treat psychosis?
drugs acting as dopamine antagonists on D2 receptors in forebrain
Glycine only has _____ receptors.
GABA(A) receptors are _____ mediating _____ inhibition.
GABA(B) receptors are _____ receptors mediating _____ inhibition.
metabotropic, slow synaptic
Like glycine receptors, the GABA(A) receptors are _____ channels.
Anti-anxiety drugs act on _____ receptor channels.
_____ and _____ bind to sites on subunits of GABA receptor and enhance inhibitory response caused by GABA binding to receptor sites. This leads to inhibition of cells in the _____.
What are the 2 forms of ionotropic receptors for glutamate?
What ion blocks the binding site of NMDA receptors? How is it removed?
Cholinergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic neurons in the _____ and _____ make widespread projections to the thalamus and cortex to mediate arousal.
Noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons in the _____ make projections to the limbic lobe and cortex to mediate mood.
What is the prominent ion that flows into the NMDA receptor upon activation.
Name 2 types of drugs used to treat clinical depression.
selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Name a drug used in glaucoma treatment.
What are Beta-1 blockers used for?
Rx of hypertension
What are Beta-2 blockers used for?
Rx of asthma
What are alpha-1 agonists used for?
Rx of nasal congestion
Name the disorder: unilateral lesion in pathway between hypothalamus and cervical ganglion.
Name the disorder: paralysis of iris radial muscle, constricted pupil, droopy eyelids, dry face, no sweat.