Heart Failure

Created by phillipoliveira 

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What is the inability of cardiac muscles to pump sufficient blood to meet metabolic demand of the body called

Heart Failure

What are the results of heart failure to blood volume and interstitial fluid

results in increased blood volume and interstitial fluid

What can impaired ability of the heart to contract or increased workload imposed on cardiac tissue lead to

heart failure

how are the following related Systolic Dysfunction Diastolic Dysfunction Left Heart Failure Right Heart Failure High Demand Low output

All are types of heart failure

What does impaired ventricular function lead to in heart failure

coronary arterty disease HTN dilated cardiomyopathy valvular disease congenital heart disease

All of the following may lead to what ischemic disease valvular disease cardiomyopathy pericardial disease hypertension congenital

heart failure

What is congestive heart failure

restriciotn of ventricular filling mitral stenosis restrictive cardiomyopathy pericardial disease

How does rate of heart failure correlate with age

in increases exponentially with age

What age group has the highest rate of heart failure

over 65 account for 75% of heart failure

What is the most common dx resulting in admission to the hospital in the US

heart failure

according to the NYHA what is a class I stage of heart failure

No limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea (shortness of breath).

according to NYHA what is a class II stage of heart failure

Slight limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but ordinary physical activity results in fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea.

according to the NYHA what is a class III stage of heart failure

Marked limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity causes fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea.

according to the NYHA what is a class IV stage of heart failure

Unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of cardiac insufficiency at rest. If any physical activity is undertaken, discomfort is increased.

What is the evolution of clinical stages of heart failure starting from normal to

normal asymptomatic LV dysfunction Compensated CHF decompensated CHF refractory CHF

what are common s/s of heart failure

Decreased exercise tolerance Shortness of breath Tachycardia Peripheral edema Fatigue

What is the Disease process that have direct involvement of heart muscle Dysfunction of heart muscle with a distinct clinical or hemodynamic cause

Cardiomyopathy

What is the physiologic response to heart failure

renal upregulates the renin sngiotensin systems and aldosterone to increase BV baroreceptors increase sympathetic output and cause tachycardia and vasoconstriction

What are the effects of angiotensin II

AVP release vasoconstriction aldosterone release increased thirst decreased GFR sodium retention NE release

All tx for heart failure manipulate in some manner one of three modalities what are they

affect either preload, afterload, contractility

What are the compensatory mechanisms in heart failure

increased preload increased sympathetic tone increased circualting catecholamines increased renin-angiotensin aldosterone increased vasopresin increased atrial natriuretic factor hypertrophy

What is the problem with the compensatory mechanism in CHF

they end up being deletrerious in the long run

What do you see in ventricle in response to the increased ventricular pressures in CHF

ventricular remodeling hypertrophy and dilation in an effort to decrease pressure on the ventricular wall

how do systolic heart failure and diastolic heart failure differ

systolic is inablility of ventricle to contract normally, diastolic is inability of heart to relax and fill normally

What type of heart failure has an insidious onset is compensated and dilated anatomy usually from uncontrolled HTN, valve disease, post MI

chronic heart failure

type of heart failure with normal appearing structure, no time for compensation. is from a HTN emergency, large acute MI, sudden valve dysfunction, sudden myocarditis

acute heart failure

What is the typical presentation of left sided heart failure

dyspnea, orthopnea, pulmonary congestion

what is the typical preentation for right sided heart failure

edema, ascites, JVD, hepatic congestion but there is overlap clinically in left sided and right sided syndromes

What is the cardinal s/s of heart failure

dyspnea

what does the acronym UNLOADME have to do with heart failure

it is the tx U-upright N-Nitrates L-lasix O-O2 A-Ace inhibitor D-digoxin M-MSOR4 E-extra's CHR/Echo

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