the science of data
Observations (measurements, survey responces, etc.) that have been collected.
a complete collection of all elements to be studied. It is the group of individuals that we want information about
a subcollection of elements drown from a population. It is the part of the population that we actually examine in order to gather information
collection of data from EVERY element in a population
numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a POPULATION
a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a SAMPLE
records which of several groups or categories an individual belongs.
Categorical value aka
takes numerical values for which hit makes sense to do arithmetic operations like adding and averaging
a variable that affects the variables being studied but is not included in the study. It hided, if you will, in the background and has the potential to ruin the results
data results that are due to when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a countable number (i.e. the number of possible values is infinite but you can assign the natural numbers (1,2,3...) to each value present. ex. binomial distribution
__________ data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps. ex. the normal distribution
Nominal level of measurement
_______________ level of measurement is characterized by data that consists of names, labels or categories only. Data can't be arranged in an ordering scheme, such as low to high
Ordinal level of measurement
the _______________ level of measurement is characterized by date that can be arranged in some order, but aritmetic differeces( aka subtraction) are meaningless
football rankings are an example of....
____________ is an example of ordinal level of measurement
Interval level of measurement
_______________ level of measurement is like the ordinal level with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful. Quotients though are meaningless and there is no natural zero (where none of the quantity is present) EX temerature, IQ
Ratio level of measurement
____________ level of measurement is characterized by data that have a natural zero starting point. Both arithmetic differences and quotients are meaningful. EX. height, miles
in a _________________ sample, members of the population are selected in such a way that each has an equal chance of being selected.
Simple Random Sample
a _____________ ______________ sample of size n subjects is chosen in such a way that every possible sample of size n has the same chance of being the sample actually selected.
In ____________ sampling we select some starting point and then select every k-th element in the population. Mod arithmetic is useful for this type of sampling.
with ___________ sampling we subdivide the population into at least tow different subgroups (or strata) that share the same characteristics (such as gender or age bracket) then we draw a sample (most often an SRS) from each stratum and combine these to form the full sample.
in ______________ sampling we divide the population into sections or clusters. Then we randomly select some of those clusters and choose all of the members from each cluster selected.
with multistage sampling, some combination of the various methods of random sampling is used to form the sample.
the difference between a sample result and the true population result, such an error results form chance sample fluctuations.
when the sample data are incorrectly collected, recorded or analyzed (such as selecting a biased sample, using a defective measurement instrument, or copying the data incorrectly)
systematic error which favors certain outcomes
occurs when some groups of the population are left out of the process of choosing a sample.
we observe and measure specific characteristics but we don't attempt to modify the subjects being studied.
we deliberately impose some treatment and then proceed to observe its effects on the subjects.
a technique in which the subject doesn't know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or placebo
x max - x min
inter-quartile range. Q3-Q1
A statistic used as a measure of the dispersion or variation in a distribution, equal to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.