THE ULTIMATE STUDY FOR MORZENTI CHAPTER 21 SECTIONS I AND II

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This is the ULTIMATE STUDY for MORZENTI CHAPTER 21 to study for! SECTION I: DONE! SECTION II: DONE!

Suleyman I

From 1520 to 1566, Suleyman I exercised great power as sultan of the Ottoman Empire. A European monarch of the same period, Charles V, came close to matching Suleyman's power. As the Hapsburg king, Charles inherited Spain, Spain's American colonies, parts of Italy, and lands in Austria and the Netherlands. As the elected Holy Roman Emperor, he ruled much of Germany. It was the first time since Charlemagne that a European ruler controlled so much territory.

Charles V

From 1520 to 1566, Suleyman I exercised great power as sultan of the Ottoman Empire. A European monarch of the same period, Charles V, came close to matching Suleyman's power. As the Hapsburg king, Charles inherited Spain, Spain's American colonies, parts of Italy, and lands in Austria and the Netherlands. As the elected Holy Roman Emperor, he ruled much of Germany. It was the first time since Charlemagne that a European ruler controlled so much territory. A devout Catholic, Charles not only fought Muslims but also opposed Lutherans, In 1555, he unwillingly agreed to the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed German princes to choose the religion for their territory. The following year, Charles V divided his immense empire and retired to a monastery. To his brother Ferdinand, he left Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. His son, Philip II, inherited Spain, and the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies.

Peace of Augsburg

A devout Catholic, Charles not only fought Muslims but also opposed Lutherans, In 1555, he unwillingly agreed to the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed German princes to choose the religion for their territory.

Ferdinand

The following year, Charles V divided his immense empire and retired to a monastery. To his brother Ferdinand, he left Austria and the Holy Roman Empire.

Philip II,

The following year, Charles V divided his immense empire and retired to a monastery. To his brother Ferdinand, he left Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. His son, Philip II, inherited Spain, and the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies. Philip was shy, serious, and - like his father - deeply religious. He was also very hardworking. Yet Philip would not allow anyone to help him. Deeply suspicious, he trusted no one for long. As his own court historian wrote, "His smile and his dagger were very close." Perhaps, above all, Philip could be aggressive for the sake of his empire. In 1580, the king of Portugal died without an heir. Because Philip was the king's nephew, he seized the Portuguese kingdom. Counting Portuguese strongholds in Africa, India, and the East Indies, he now had an empire that circled the globe. Philip's empire provided him with incredible wealth. By 1600, American mines had supplied Spain with an estimated 339,000 pounds of gold. Between 1550 and 1650, roughly 16,000 tons of silver bullion were unloaded from Spanish galleons, or ships. The king of Spain claimed between a fourth and a fifth of every shipload of treasure as his royal share. With this wealth, Spain was able to support a long standing army of about 50,000 soldiers. When Philip assumed the throne, Europe was experiencing religious wars caused by thee Reformation. However, religious conflict was not new to Spain. The Reconquista, the campaign to drive Muslims from Spain, had been completed only 64 years before. In addition, Philip's great-grandparents Isabella and Ferdinand had used the Inquisition to investigate suspected heretics, or nonbelievers in Christianity. Philip believed it was his duty to defend Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe. In 1571, the pope called on all Catholic princes to take up arms against the mounting power of the Ottoman Empire. Philip responded like a true crusader. More than 200 Spanish and Venetian ships defeated a large Ottoman fleet in a fierce battle near Lepanto. In 1588, Philip launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had supported Protestant subjects who had rebelled against Philip. However, his fleet was defeated. Although this setback seriously weakened Spain, its wealth gave the appearance of strength a while longer. Philip's gray granite palace, the Escorial, had massive walls and huge gates that demonstrated his power. The Escorial also reflected Philip's faith. Within its walls stood a monastery as well as a palace. In the Spanish Netherlands, Philip had to maintain an army to keep his subjects under control. The Dutch had little in common with their Spanish rulers. While Spain was Catholic, the Netherlands had many Calvinist congregations. Also, Spain had a sluggish economy, while the Dutch had a prosperous middle class. Philip raised taxes in the Netherlands and took steps to crush Protestantism. In response, in 1566, angry Protestant mobs swept through Catholic churches. Philip then sent an army under the Spanish duke of Alva to punish the rebels. On a single day in 1568, the duke executed 1,500 Protestants and suspected rebels. The Dutch continued to fight the Spanish for another 11 years. Finally, in 1579, the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, which were largely Protestant, united and declared their independence from Spain. They became the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The ten southern provinces (present-day Belgium) were Catholic and remained under Spanish control.

Galleons

Between 1550 and 1650, roughly 16,000 tons of silver bullion were unloaded from Spanish galleons, or ships. The king of Spain claimed between a fourth and a fifth of every shipload of treasure as his royal share.

Lepanto

In 157In 1571, the pope called on all Catholic princes to take up arms against the mounting power of the Ottoman EmpiIn 1571, the pope called on all CathoIn 1571, the pope called on all Catholic princes to take up arms against the mounting power of the Ottoman Empire. Philip responded like a true crusader. More than 200 Spanish and Venetian ships defeated a large Ottoman fleet in a fierce battle near Lepanto. lic princes to

Spanish Armada

In 1588, Philip launched the Spanish Armada in an attempt to punish Protestant England and its queen, Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had supported Protestant subjects who had rebelled against Philip. However, his fleet was defeated. Although this setback seriously weakened Spain, its wealth gave the appearance of strength a while longer.

Escorial

Philip's gray granite palace, the Escorial, had massive walls and huge gates that demonstrated his power. The Escorial also reflected Philip's faith. Within its walls stood a monastery as well as a palace.

Patrons of the Arts

Spain's great wealth did more than support navies and build palaces. It also allowed monarchs and nobles to become patrons of artists. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain experienced a golden age on the arts. The works of two great painters show both the faith a pride of Spain during the period.

El Greco

Born in Crete, El Greco spent much of his adult life in Spain. His real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos, but Spaniards called him El Greco, meaning "the Greek." El Greco's art often puzzled people of his time. He chose brilliant, sometimes clashing colors, distorted the human figure, and expressed emotion symbolically in his paintings. Although unusual, El Greco's techniques showed the deep Catholic faith of Spain. He painted saints and martyrs as huge, long-limbed figures that have a supernatural air.

Diego Velazquez

The paintings of Diego Velazquez, on the other hand, reflected the pride of Spanish monarchy. Velazquez, who painted 50 years after El Greco, was the court painter to Philip IV of Spain. He is best known for his portraits of the royal family and scenes of court life. Like El Greco, he was noted for using rich colors. In Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), Velazquez depicts King Philip IV's daughter and her attendants.

Las Meninas

In Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), Velazquez depicts King Philip IV's daughter and her attendants.

Don Quixote de la Mancha

The publication of Don Quixote de la Mancha in 1605 is often called the birth of the modern European novel. In this book, Miguel de Cervantes wrote about a poor Spanish nobleman who went a little crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights. Hoping to "right every manner of wrong," Don Quixote rode forth in a rusty suit of armor, mounted on a feeble horse. At one point, he mistook some windmills for giants. Some critics believe that Cervantes was mocking chivalry, the knightly code of the Middle Ages. Others maintain that the book is about an idealistic person who longs for the romantic past because he is frustrated with the materialistic world.

Miguel de Cervantes

The publication of Don Quixote de la Mancha in 1605 is often called the birth of the modern European novel. In this book, Miguel de Cervantes wrote about a poor Spanish nobleman who went a little crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights. Hoping to "right every manner of wrong," Don Quixote rode forth in a rusty suit of armor, mounted on a feeble horse. At one point, he mistook some windmills for giants. Some critics believe that Cervantes was mocking chivalry, the knightly code of the Middle Ages. Others maintain that the book is about an idealistic person who longs for the romantic past because he is frustrated with the materialistic world. Certainly, the age in which Cervantes wrote was a materialistic one. The gold and silver coming from the Americas made Spain temporarily wealthy. However, such treasure helped to cause long-term economic problems.

Inflation

The gold and silver com
The gold and silver coming from the Americas made Spain temporarily wealthy. However, such treasure helped to cause long-term economic problems. One of these problems was severe inflation, which is a decline in the value of money, accompanied by a rise of prices in goods and services. Inflation in Spain had two main causes. First, Spain's population had been growing. As more people demanded food and other goods, merchants were able to raise prices. Second, as silver bullion flooded the market, its value dropped. People needed more and more amounts of silver to buy things. Spain's economic decline also had other causes. When Spain expelled the Jews and Moors (Muslims) around 1500, it lost many valuable artisans and business people. In addition, Spain's nobles did not have to pay taxes. The tax burden fell on the lower classes. That burden prevented them from accumulating enough wealth to start their own business. As a result, Spain never developed a middle class.

Guilds

Guilds that had emerges in the Middle Ages still dominated business in Spain. Such guilds used old-fashioned methods. This made Spanish cloth and manufactured goods more expensive than made elsewhere. As a result, Spaniards bought much of what they needed from France, England, and the Netherlands. Spain's great wealth flowed into the pockets of foreigners, who were mostly Spain's enemies. To finance their wars, Spanish kings borrowed money from German and Italian bankers. When shiploads of silver came in, the money was sent abroad to repay debts. The economy was so feeble that Philip had to declare the Spanish state bankrupt three times.

Duke of Alva

Philip raised taxes in the Netherlands and took steps to crush Protestantism. In response, in 1566, angry Protestant mobs swept through Catholic churches. Philip then sent an army under the Spanish duke of Alva to punish the rebels. On a single day in 1568, the duke executed 1,500 Protestants and suspected rebels. The Dutch continued to fight the Spanish for another 11 years. Finally, in 1579, the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, which were largely Protestant, united and declared their independence from Spain.

United Provinces of the Netherlands

In the Spanish Netherlands, Philip had to maintain an army to keep his subjects under control. The Dutch had little in common with their Spanish rulers. While Spain was Catholic, the Netherlands had many Calvinist congregations. Also, Spain had a sluggish economy, while the Dutch had a prosperous middle class. Philip raised taxes in the Netherlands and took steps to crush Protestantism. In response, in 1566, angry Protestant mobs swept through Catholic churches. Philip then sent an army under the Spanish duke of Alva to punish the rebels. On a single day in 1568, the duke executed 1,500 Protestants and suspected rebels. The Dutch continued to fight the Spanish for another 11 years. Finally, in 1579, the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, which were largely Protestant, united and declared their independence from Spain. They became the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The ten southern provinces (present-day Belgium) were Catholic and remained under Spanish control. The United Provinces of the Netherlands was different from other European states of the time. For one thing, the people there practiced religious toleration. In addition, the United Provinces was not a kingdom but a republic. Each province had an elected governor, whose power depended on the support of merchants and landholders. During the 1600s, the Netherlands became what Florence had been during the 1400s. It boasted not only the best banks but also many of the best artists in Europe. As in Florence, wealthy merchants sponsored many of these artists.

Tulip Mania

Tulips came to Europe from Turkey around 1550. People went wild over the flowers and began to buy rare varieties. However, the supply of tulips could not meet the demand, and prices began to rise. Soon people were spending all their savings on bulbs and taking out loans so that they could buy more. Tulip mania reached a peak between 1633 and 1637. Soon after, tulip prices sank rapidly. Many Dutch families lost property and were left with bulbs that were nearly worthless.

Rembrandt van Rijn

Rembrandt van Rijn was the greatest Dutch artist of the period. Rembrandt painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants. He also produced group portraits. In The Night Watch, he portrayed a group of city guards. Rembrandt showed the individuality of each man by capturing distinctive facial expressions and postures. Rembrandt used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus. The work of both Rembrandt and Vermeer reveals how important merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class in general were in the 17th-century Netherlands.

The Night Watch

In The Night Watch, he portrayed a group of city guards. Rembrandt showed the individuality of each man by capturing distinctive facial expressions and postures. Rembrandt used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus.

Jan Vermeer

Another artist fascinated with the effects of light and dark was Jan Vermeer. Like many other Dutch artists, he chose domestic, indoor settings for his portraits. He often painted women doing such familiar activities as pouring milk from a jug or reading a letter. The work of both Rembrandt and Vermeer reveals how important merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class in general were in the 17th-century Netherlands.

Dutch East India Trading Company

The stability of the government allowed the Dutch people to concentrate on economic growth. The merchants of Amsterdam bought surplus grain in Poland and crammed it into their warehouses. When they heard about poor harvests in southern Europe, they shipped the grain south while prices were highest. The Dutch had the largest fleet in the world - perhaps 4,800 ships in 1636. This fleet helped the Dutch East India Company (a trading company controlled by the Dutch government) to dominate the Asian spice trade and the Indian Ocean trade. Gradually, the Dutch replaced the Italians as the bankers of Europe.

Absolutism

Even though Philip II lost his Dutch possessions, he was a forceful ruler in many ways. He tried to control every aspect of his empire's affairs. During the next few centuries, many European monarchs would also claim the authority to rule without limits on their power. These rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs, kings or queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries. Their goal was to control every aspect of society. Absolute monarchs believed in divine right, the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects. Absolutism was the political belief that one ruler should hold all of the power within the boundaries of a country. Although practiced by several monarchs in Europe during the 18th centuries, absolutism has been used in many regions throughout history. In ancient times, Shi Huangdi in China, Darius in Persia, and the Roman caesars were all absolute rulers. Causes included Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty. The growth of armies to deal with conflicts caused rulers to raise taxes to pay troops. Heavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolts. This all led to absolutism. Effects included Rulers regulated religious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideas. Rulers increased the size of their courts to appear more powerful. Rulers created bureaucracies to control their countries' economies. The 17th century was a period of great upheaval in Europe. Religious and territorial conflicts between states led to almost continuous warfare. This caused governments to build huge armies and to levy even heavier taxes on an already suffering population. These pressures in turn brought about widespread unrest. Sometimes peasants revolted. In response to these crises, monarchs tried to impose order by increasing their own power. As absolute rulers, they regulated everything from religious worship to social gatherings. They created new government bureaucracies to control their countries' economic life. Their goal was to free themselves from the limitation imposed by the nobility and by representative bodies such as Parliament. Only with such freedom could they rule absolutely, as did the most famous monarch of his time, Louis XIV of France.

Absolute Monarchs

During the next few centuries, many European monarchs would also claim the authority to rule without limits on their power. These rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs, kings or queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries. Their goal was to control every aspect of society. Absolute monarchs believed in divine right, the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.

Divine Right

During the next few centuries, many European monarchs would also claim the authority to rule without limits on their power. These rulers wanted to be absolute monarchs, kings or queens who held all of the power within their states' boundaries. Their goal was to control every aspect of society. Absolute monarchs believed in divine right, the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative on Earth. An absolute monarch answered only to God, not to his or her subjects.

Jean Bodin

As Europe emerged from the Middle Ages, monarchs grew increasingly powerful. The decline of feudalism, the rise of cities, and the growth of national kingdoms all helped centralize authority. In addition, the growing middle class usually backed monarchs, because they promised more a peaceful, supportive climate for business. Monarchs used the wealth of colonies to pay for their ambitions. Church authority also broke down during the late Middle Ages and the Reformation. The opened the way for monarchs to assume even greater control. In 1576, Jean Bodin, an influential French writer, defined absolute rule in the Six Books on the State

Six Books on the State

In 1576, Jean Bodin, an influential French writer, defined absolute rule in the Six Books on the State

Catherine de Medicis

In 1559, King Henry II of France died, leaving four young sons. Three of them ruled, one after another, but all proved incompetent. The real power behind the throne during this period was their mother, Catherine de Medicis. Catherine tried to preserve royal authority, but growing conflicts between Catholics and Huguenots - French Protestants - rocked the country. Between 1562 and 1598, Huguenots and Catholics fought eight religious wars. Chaos spread through France.

St. Batholomew's Day Massacre

In 1572, the St. Batholomew's Day Massacre in Paris sparked a six-week, nationwide slaughter of Huguenots. The massacre occurred when many Huguenot nobles were in Paris. They were attending the Marriage of Catherine's daughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre. Most of these nobles died, but Henry survived.

Henry of Navarre

In 1572, the St. Batholomew's Day Massacre in Paris sparked a six-week, nationwide slaughter of Huguenots. The massacre occurred when many Huguenot nobles were in Paris. They were attending the Marriage of Catherine's daughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre. Most of these nobles died, but Henry survived. Descended from the popular medieval king Louis IX, Henry was robust, athletic, and handsome. In 1589, when both Catherine and her last son died, Prince Henry inherited the throne. He became Henry IV, the first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France. As king, he showed himself to be decisive, fearless in battle, and a clever politician. Many Catholics, including the people of Paris opposed Henry. For the sake of his war-weary country, Henry chose to give up Protestantism and become a Catholic. Explaining his conversion, Henry reportedly declared, "Paris is well worth a mass." In 1598, Henry took another step toward healing France's wounds. He declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own housed of worship in some cities. This declaration of religious toleration was called the Edict of Nantes. Aided by an adviser who enacted wise financial policies, Henry devoted his reign to rebuilding France and its prosperity. He restored the French monarchy to a strong position. After a generation of war, most French people welcomed peace. Some people, however, hated Henry for his religious compromises. In1610, a fanatic leaped into the royal carriage and stabbed Henry to death.
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Edict of Nantes

In 1598, Henry took another step toward healing France's wounds. He declared that the Huguenots could live in peace in France and set up their own housed of worship in some cities. This declaration of religious toleration was called the Edict of Nantes. After Colbert's death, Louis announced a policy that slowed France's economic progress. In 1685, he canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected the religious freedom of Huguenots. In response, thousand of Huguenot artisans and business people fled the country. Louis's policy thus robbed France of many skilled workers.

Bourbon Dynasty

Descended from the popular medieval king Louis IX, Henry was robust, athletic, and handsome. In 1589, when both Catherine and her last son died, Prince Henry inherited the throne. He became Henry IV, the first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France.

Cardinal Richelieu

After Henry IV's death, his son Louis XIII reigned. Louis was a weak king, but in 1624, he appointed a strong minister who made up for all of Louis's weaknesses. Cardinal Richelieu became, in effect, the ruler of France. For several years, he had been a hard-working leader of the Catholic church in France. Although he tried sincerely to lead according to moral principles, he was also ambitious and enjoyed exercising authority. As Louis XIII's minister, he was able to pursue his ambitions in the political arena. Richelieu took many steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy. First, he moved against Huguenots. He believed that Protestantism often served as an excuse for political conspiracies against the Catholic king. Although Richelieu did not take away the Huguenots right to worship, he forbade Protestant cities to have walls. He did not want them to be able to defy the king and then withdraw behind strong defenses. Second, he sought to weaken the nobles' power. Richelieu ordered nobles to take down their fortified castles. He increased the power of government agents who came from the middle class. The king relied on these agents, so there was less need to use noble officials. Richelieu also wanted to make France the strongest state in Europe. The greatest obstacle to this, he believed, was the Hapsburg rulers, whose lands surrounded France. The Hapsburgs ruled Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, and parts of the Holy Roman Empire. To limit Hapsburg power, Richelieu involved France in the Thirty Years' War. In a specific painting, Cardinal Richelieu probably had himself portrayed in a standing position in the painting to underscore his role as a ruler.

Skepticism

As France regained political power, a new French intellectual movement developed. French thinkers had witnessed the religious wars with horror. What they saw turned them toward skepticism, the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain. These thinkers expressed an attitude of doubt toward churches that claimed to have the only correct set of doctrines. To doubt old ideas, skeptics thought, was the first step toward finding truth.

Michel de Montaigne

Michel de Montaigne lived during the worst years of the French religious wars. After the death of a dear friend, Montaigne thought deeply about life's meaning. To communicate his ideas, Montaigne developed a new form of literature, the essay. An essay is a brief work that expresses a person's thoughts and opinions. In one, essay, Montaigne pointed out that whenever a new belief arose, it replaced an old belief that people once accepted as truth. In the same way, he went on, the new belief would also be probably replaced by some different idea in the future.For these reasons, Montaigne believed that humans could never have absolute knowledge of what is true.

Essay

To communicate his ideas, Montaigne developed a new form of literature, the essay. An essay is a brief work that expresses a person's thoughts and opinions. In one, essay, Montaigne pointed out that whenever a new belief arose, it replaced an old belief that people once accepted as truth. In the same way, he went on, the new belief would als

To communicate his ideas, Montaigne developed a new form of literature, the essay. An essay is a brief work that expresses a person's thoughts and opinions. In one, essay, Montaigne pointed out that whenever a new belief arose, it replaced an old belief that people once accepted as truth. In the same way, he went on, the new belief would also be probably replaced by some different idea in the future.For these reasons, Montaigne believed that humans could never have absolute knowledge of what is true.

Rene Descartes

Another French writer of the time, Rene Descartes, was a brilliant thinker. In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes examined the skeptical argument that one could never be certain of anything. Descartes used his observations and his reason to answer such arguments. In doing so, he created a philosophy that influence modern thinkers and helped to develop the scientific method. Because of this, he became an important figure in thee Enlightenment.

Meditations on First Philosophy

In his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes examined the skeptical argument that one could never be certain of anything. Descartes used his observations and his reason to answer such arguments. In doing so, he created a philosophy that influence modern thinkers and helped to develop the scientific method. Because of this, he became an important figure in thee Enlightenment.

Louis XIV

The efforts of Henry IV and Richelieu to strengthen the French monarchy paved the way for the most powerful ruler in French history - Louis XIV. In Louis's view, he and the state were one and the same. He reportedly boasted, "L 'etat, c 'est moi," meaning, "I am the stat." Although Louis XIV became the strongest king of his time, he was only a four-year-old boy when he began his reign. When Louis became king in 1643 after the death of his father, Louis XIII, the true ruler of France was Richelieu's successor, Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin's great triumph came in 1648, with the ending of the Thirty Year's War. When Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, the 22-year-old Louis took control of the government himself. He weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils. In contrast, he increased the power of the government agents called intendants, who collected taxes and administered justice. To keep power under central control, he made sure that local officials communicated regularly with him. Louis devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance. No one assisted him more in achieving these goals than his minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert. After Colbert's death, Louis announced a policy that slowed France's economic progress. In 1685, he canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected the religious freedom of Huguenots. In response, thousand of Huguenot artisans and business people fled the country. Louis's policy thus robbed France of many skilled workers. Although Louis XIV stood only 5 feet 5 inches tall, his erected and dignified posture made him appear much taller. (It also helped that he wore high-heeled shoes). Louis had very strong likes and dislikes. He hated cities and loved to travel though France's countryside. The people who traveled with him were at his mercy, however, for he allowed no stopping except for his own comfort. It is small wonder that the vain Louis XIV liked too be called the Sun King. He believed that, as with the sun, all power radiated from him. In his personal finances, Louis spent a fortune to surround himself with luxury. For example, each meal was a feast. An observer claimed that the king once devoured four plates of soup, a whole pheasant, a partridge in garlic sauce, two slices of ham, a salad, a plate of pastries, fruit, and hard-boiled eggs in a single sitting. Nearly 500 cooks, waiters, and other servants worked to satisfy his tastes. Every morning, the chief valet woke Louis at 8:30. Outside the curtains of Louis's canopy bed stood at least 100 of the most privileged nobles at court. They were waiting to help the king dress. Only four would be allowed the honor of handing Louis his slippers or holding his sleeves for him. Meanwhile, outside the bedchamber, lesser nobles waited in the palace halls and hoped Louis would notice them. A kindly nod, a glance of approval, a kind word- these marks of royal attention determined whether a noble succeeded or failed. A duke recorded how Louis turned against nobles who did not come to court to flatter him. Having the nobles at the palace increased royal authority in two ways. It made the nobility totally dependent on Louis. It also took them from their homes, thereby giving more power to the intendants. Louis required hundreds of nobles to live with him at the splendid palace he built at
Versailles, about 11 miles southwest of Paris. Because of its great size, Versailles was like a small royal city. Its rich decoration and furnishings clearly showed Louis's wealth and power to everyone who came to the palace. Versailles was a center of thee arts during Louis's reign. Louis made opera and ballet more popular. He even danced the title role in the ballet The Sun King. One of his favorite writers was Moliere, who wrote some of the funniest plays in French literature. Moliere's comedies include Tartuffe, which mocks religious hypocrisy. Not since Augustus of Rome had there been a European monarch who supported the arts as much as Louis. Under Louis, the chief purpose of art was no longer to glorify God, as it had been in the Middle Ages. Nor was its purpose to glorify human potential, as it had been in the Renaissance. Now the purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote values that supported Louis's absolute rule. Under Louis, France was the most powerful country in Europe. In 1660, France had about 20 million people. This was four times as many as England and ten times as many as the Dutch republic. The French army was far ahead of other states' armies in size, training, and weaponry. In 1667, just six years after Mazarin's death, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands in an effort to expand France's boundaries. Through this campaign, he gained 12 towns. Encouraged by his success, he personally led an army into the Dutch Netherlands in 1672. The Dutch saved their country by opening the dikes and flooding the countryside. This was the same tactic they had used in their revolt against Spain a century earlier. The was ended in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen. France gained towns and a region called Franche-Comte.

Cardinal Mazarin

When Louis became king in 1643 after the death of his father, Louis XIII, the true ruler of France was Richelieu's successor, Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin's great triumph came in 1648, with the ending of the Thirty Year's War. Many people in France, particularly nobles, hated Mazarin because he increased taxes and strengthened the central government. From 1648 to 1653, violent anti-Mazarin riots tore France apart. At times, the nobles who led the riots threatened the young king's life. Even after the violence was over, Louis never forgot his fear or his anger at the nobility. He determined to become so strong that they could never threaten him again. In the end, the nobles' rebellion failed for three reasons.Its leaders distrusted one another even more than they distrusted Mazarin. In addition, the government used violent repression. Finally, peasants and townspeople grew weary of disorder and fighting. For many years afterward, the people of France accepted the oppressive laws of an absolute king. They were conceived that the alternative - rebellion - was even worse.

Intendants

In contrast, Louis XIV increased the power of the government agents called intendants, who collected taxes and administered justice. To keep power under central control, he made sure that local officials communicated regularly with him.

Jean Baptiste Colbert

Louis devoted himself to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brilliance. No one assisted him more in achieving these goals than his minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert. Colbert believed in the theory of mercantilism. To prevent wealth from leaving the country, Colbert tried to make France self-sufficient. He wanted it to be able to manufacture everything it needed instead of relying on imports. To expand manufacturing, Colbert gave government funds and tax benefits to French companies. To protect France's industries, he placed a high tariff on goods from other countries. Colbert also recognized the importance of colonies, which provided raw materials and a market for manufactured goods. The French government encouraged people to migrate to France's colony in Canada. There the fur trade added too French trade and wealth. After Colbert's death, Louis announced a policy that slowed France's economic progress. In 1685, he canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected the religious freedom of Huguenots. In response, thousand of Huguenot artisans and business people fled the country. Louis's policy thus robbed France of many skilled workers.

Duke of Saint-Simon

He recorded how Louis turned against nobles who did not come to court to flatter him in Memoirs of Louis XIV and the Regency. Though full of errors, Saint-Simon's memoirs provide valuable insight into Louiis XIV
s character and life at Versailles.

Versailles

Louis required hundreds of nobles to live with him at the splendid palace he built at Versailles, about 11 miles southwest of Paris. As you can see from the pictures on page 600, everything about the Versailles palace was immense. It faced a huge royal courtyard dominated by a statue of Louis XIV. The palace itself stretched for a distance of about 500 yards. Because of its great size, Versailles was like a small royal city. Its rich decoration and furnishings clearly showed Louis's wealth and power to everyone who came to the palace. Versailles was a center of thee arts during Louis's reign. Louis made opera and ballet more popular. He even danced the title role in the ballet The Sun King. One of his favorite writers was Moliere, who wrote some of the funniest plays in French literature. Moliere's comedies include Tartuffe, which mocks religious hypocrisy. Not since Augustus of Rome had there been a European monarch who supported the arts as much as Louis. Under Louis, the chief purpose of art was no longer to glorify God, as it had been in the Middle Ages. Nor was its purpose to glorify human potential, as it had been in the Renaissance. Now the purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote values that supported Louis's absolute rule. Louis XIV's palace was proof of his absolute power. Only a ruler with total control over his country's economy could afford such a lavish palace. It cost an estimated $2.5 billion in 2003 dollars. Louis XIV was also able to force 36,000 laborers and 6,000 horses to work on the project. Many people consider the Hall of Mirrors the most beautiful room in the palace. Along one wall are 17 tall mirrors. The opposite wall has 17 windows that open onto the gardens. The hall has glided statues, crystal chandeliers, and a painted ceiling. It took so much water to run all the fountains at once that it was only done on special events. On other days, when the king walked in the garden, servants would turn on fountains just before he had reached them. The fountains were turned off after he walked away. The gardens at Versailles remain beautiful today. Originally, Versailles was built with 5,000 acres of gardens lawns, and wood with 1,400 fountains. Louis decided to fight additional wars, but his luck had run out. By the end of the 1680s, a Europeanwide alliance had formed to stop France. By banding together, weaker countries could match France's strength. This defensive strategy was meant to achieve a balance of power, in which no single country or group of countries could dominate others. France at this time had been weakened by a series of poor harvests. That, added to the constant warfare, brought great suffering to the French people. So, too, did new taxes, which Louis imposed to finance his wars. Louis's last years were more sad than glorious. Realizing that his wars had ruined France, he regretted the suffering he had brought to his people. He died in bed in 1715. News of his death prompted rejoicing throughout France. The people had enough of the Sun King. Louis left a mixed legacy to his country. On the positive side, France was certainly a power to be reckoned with in Europe. France ranked above all other European nations in art, literature, and statesmanship during Louis's reign. In addition, France was considered the military leader of Europe. This military might allowed France to develop a strong empire of colonies, which provided resources and goods for trade. On the negative side, constant warfare and the construction of the Palace of Versailles plunged France into staggering debt. Also, resentment over the tax burden imposed on the poor and Louis's abuse of power would plague his heirs and eventually led to revolution. Absolute did not die with Louis XIV. His enemies in Prussia and Austria and been experimenting with their own forms of absolute monarchy.

The Sun King

Louis made opera and ballet more popular. He even danced the title role in the ballet The Sun King.

Moliere

One of his favorite writers was Moliere, who wrote some of
One of Louis's favorite writers was Moliere, who wrote some of the funniest plays in French literature. Moliere's comedies include Tartuffe, which mocks religious hypocrisy.

Tartuffe

One of Louis's favorite writers was Moliere, who wrote some of the funniest plays in French literature. Moliere's comedies include Tartuffe, which mocks religious hypocrisy.

Hall of Mirrors

Many people consider the Hall of Mirrors the most beautiful room in the palace of Versailles. Along one wall are 17 tall mirrors. The opposite wall has 17 windows that open onto the gardens. The hall has glided statues, crystal chandeliers, and a painted ceiling.

Treaty of Nijmegen

In 1667, just six years after Mazarin's death, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands in an effort to expand France's boundaries. Through this campaign, he gained 12 towns. Encouraged by his success, he personally led an army into the Dutch Netherlands in 1672. The Dutch saved their country by opening the dikes and flooding the countryside. This was the same tactic they had used in their revolt against Spain a century earlier. The was ended in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen. France gained towns and a region called Franche-Comte.

Franche-Comte

In 1667, just six years after Mazarin's death, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands in an effort to expand France's boundaries. Through this campaign, he gained 12 towns. Encouraged by his success, he personally led an army into the Dutch Netherlands in 1672. The Dutch saved their country by opening the dikes and flooding the countryside. This was the same tactic they had used in their revolt against Spain a century earlier. The was ended in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen. France gained towns and a region called Franche-Comte.

William of Orange

In 1689, the Dutch prince William of Orange became the king of England. He joined the League of Augsburg, which consisted of the Austrian Hapsburg emperor, the kings of Sweden and Spain, and the leaders of several smaller European states. Together, these countries equaled France's strength. France at this time had been weakened by a series of poor harvests. That, added to the constant warfare, brought great suffering to the French people. So, too, did new taxes, which Louis imposed to finance his wars.

League of Augsburg

By the end of the 1680s, a Europeanwide alliance had formed to stop France. By banding together, weaker countries could match France's strength. This defensive strategy was meant to achieve a balance of power, in which no single country or group of countries could dominate others. In 1689, the Dutch prince William of Orange became the king of England. He joined the League of Augsburg, which consisted of the Austrian Hapsburg emperor, the kings of Sweden and Spain, and the leaders of several smaller European states. Together, these countries equaled France's strength. France at this time had been weakened by a series of poor harvests. That, added to the constant warfare, brought great suffering to the French people. So, too, did new taxes, which Louis imposed to finance his wars.

Charles II

Tired of hardship, the French people longed for peace. What they got was another war. In 1700, the childless king of Spain, Charles II, died after promising his throne to Louis XIV's 16-year-old grandson, Philip of Anjou. The two greatest powers in Europe, enemies for so long, were now both ruled by French Bourbons.

Philip of Anjou

Tired of hardship, the French people longed for peace. What they got was another war. In 1700, the childless king of Spain, Charles II, died after promising his throne to Louis XIV's 16-year-old grandson, Philip of Anjou. The two greatest powers in Europe, enemies for so long, were now both ruled by French Bourbons.

War of the Spanish Succession

Other countries felt threatened by the increase in the Bourbon dynasty's power. In 1701, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states joined together to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones. The long struggle that followed is known as the War of the Spanish Succession. The costly war dragged on until 1714. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in that year. Under its terms, Louis's grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain so long as the thrones of Spain were not united. The big winner in the war was Great Britain. From Spain, Britain took Gibraltar, a fortress that controlled the entrance to the Mediterranean. Spain also granted a British company an asiento, permission to send enslaved Africans to Spain's American colonies. This increased Britain's involvement in trading enslave Africans. In a addition, France gave Britain the North American territories of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and abandoned claims to the Hudson Bay region. The Austrian Hapsburgs took the Spanish Netherlands and other Spanish lands in Italy. Prussia and Savoy were recognized as kingdoms.

Treaty of Utrecht

Other countries felt threatened by the increase in the Bourbon dynasty's power. In 1701, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states joined together to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones. The long struggle that followed is known as the War of the Spanish Succession. The costly war dragged on until 1714. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in that year. Under its terms, Louis's grandson was allowed to remain king of Spain so long as the thrones of Spain were not united.

Gibraltar

The big winner in the war was Great Britain. From Spain, Britain took Gibraltar, a fortress that controlled the entrance to the Mediterranean. Spain also granted a British company an asiento, permission to send enslaved Africans to Spain's American colonies. This increased Britain's involvement in trading enslave Africans.

Asiento

The big winner in the war was Great Britain. From Spain, Britain took Gibraltar, a fortress that controlled the entrance to the Mediterranean. Spain also granted a British company an asiento, permission to send enslaved Africans to Spain's American colonies. This increased Britain's involvement in trading enslave Africans.

The Battle of Denain

Shown in a painting on Page 601, this was one of the last battles fought during the War of the Spanish Succession.

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