The present epoch (period of time), originating at the end of the glacier period, approximately 12,000 years ago.
The geographic spread and distribution of any technology, especially agriculture; the increase in the range of human beings without any parallel increase in the average size or density of human communities.
Increasing the amount of food produced on a plot of land; any practice that increases productivity per unit land area; increasing the density of.
The occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming; the production of crops, livestock, or poultry.
One who farms the land.
Related to cultivated, farmed land.
The conversion of plants and animals so as to be beneficial to human beings.
That which has been converted to use by human beings/ an animal that is tamed.
The act of one organism which captures and feeds on another organism.
A close association of two organisms of different species that live together, often to their mutual benefit.
Characteristic of nomads--those who have no permanent homes; wandering, roving.
Changing from wandering ins earch of food and shelter (nomadic) to staying in one place; transistion from nomadic to permanent, year round settlements
Remaining in one place.
The possession by a species, or other group, of a situation where an organism uses a preexisting anatomical structure inherited from an ancestor for a potentially unrelated purpose.
A change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to live in its environment.
The weather conditions in an area over a long period of time.
Growth in the total number of persons alive at one time.
Pertaining to, or characteristic of the last phase of the Stone Age, marked by the domestication of animals, the development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery and textiles: commonly thought to have begun c9000-8000 b.c. in the Middle East.
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Technologies of plant cultivation that do not use plows or animals; cultivation of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.
A small community or group of huses in a rural area, larger than a hamlet and usually smaller than a town; the inhabitants of such a community collectively.
Any system of persons or things ranked one above another.
The moving from place to place.
The spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another; the act of spreading out or migrating.
The practice of herding as an economic activity; the raising and grazing of livestock.
Someone who herds domesticated animals, like sheep and cattle.
Native to or confined to a certain region; characteristic of a particular people or place; native, present within a localized area.