Medical Terminology (chapter 5)

Created by fhchs 

Upgrade to
remove ads

99 terms

alimentary

pertaining to the digestive tract

anus

terminal opening of the digestive tract through which feces are discharged.

digestion

breakdown of food into elements suitable for cell metabolism

gastroenterology

medical specialty of the stomach and intestines

gastroenterologist

medical specialist in gastroeneterology

laparoscopy

examination of contents of abdomen using an endoscope

bolus

a single mass of a substance

deglutition

act of swallowing

masticate

to chew

peristalis

waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of the intestinal wall to move food along the digestive tract

dentine

dense, ivory-like substance located under the enamel of a tooth

enamel

hard substance covering a tooth

mouth

external opening of a cavity or canal

nasopharnyx

region of the pharnyx at the back of the nose and above the soft palate

saliva

secretion in mouth from salivary glands

sublingual

underneath the tongue

submandibular

underneath the mandible

tongue

mobile muscle mass in the mouth; bears the taste buds

aphthous

painful small oral ulcers (canker sores)

gingivitus

inflammation of the gums

gingivectomy

surgical removal of diseased gum tissue

haltosis

bad breath odor

periodontal

around a tooth

pyorrhea

purulent discharge

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

emesis

vomit

hematemesis

vomitting of red blood

hernia

protrusion of a structure through the tissue that normally contains it

herniorrhaphy

repair or hernia

postprandinal

following a meal

reflux

backward flow

varices

dialated, torturous vein

duodenum

1st part of small intestine; approx. 12 finger-breadths in length

pylorus

exit area of the stomach

anorexia

w/o an appetite; or an aversion of food

dyspepsia

"upset stomach," epigastric pain, nausea, and gas

gastritis

inflammation of the lining of the stomach

gastroscope

endoscope for examinging the inside of the stomach

gastroscopy

endoscopic emam of the stomach

peptic

relating to the stomach and duodenum

absorption

uptake of nutrients and water by cells in the GI tract

cecum

blind pouch that is the first part of the large intestine

ileocecal

pertaining to the junction of the ileum and cecum

jejunum

segment of small intestine b/w the duodenum and the ileum

villi

thin,hair-like projection, particularly of a mucous membrane lining a cavity

bile

fluid secreted by the liver into the duodenum

cirrhosis

extensive fibrotic liver disease

hepatitus

inflammation of the liver

jaundice

yelllow staining of tissues with bile pigments, including bilirubin

cholecystitis

inflamation of the gallbladder

cholencystectomy

surgical removal of the gallbladder

cholendocholithiasis

presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct

cholelithiasis

condition of having bile stones (gallstones)

insulin

pancreatic hormone the supresses blood glucose levels and transports glucose into cells

pancreas

lobulated gland, the head of which is tucked into the curve of the duodenum

diarrhea

frequent loose or liquid stools

endoscopy

the use of an endoscope

endoscope

instrument used for visual examination within a tubular or hollow organ

flatulence

excessive gas in the stomach or intestines

flatus

gas or air expelled through anus

constipation

hard, infrequent bowel movements

dehydration

process of losing body water

dysentery

disease w/ diarrhea, bowel spasms, fever, and dehydration

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestines

malnutrition

inadequate nutrition from poor diet or inadequate absorption of nutrients

anus

opening through which wastes leave the digestive tract

anorectal junction

junction b/w anus & rectum

appendix

small blind projection from the pouch of the cecum

appendicitus

inflammation of appendix

appendectomy

surgical removal of the appendix

colon

the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum

colic

spasmodic,crampy pains in the abdomen

colitis

inflammation of colon

feces

undigested waste material discharged from the bowel

fecal

pertaining to feces

rectum

terminal part of colon from the sigmoid to the anal canal

rectal

pertaining to rectum

sigmoid

sigmoid colon is shaped like an "S"; relating to the sigmoid flexure in the large intestine

bowel

another name for intestine

diverticulum

pouch-like opening or sac from a tubular structure (e.g. intestine)

diverticula/diverticulosis

presence of a number of small pouches in the wall of the large intestine

diverticulitis

inflammation of diverticula

fissure

deep furrow or cleft

hemorrhoid

dilated rectal vein producing painful anal swelling

intussuspection

the slipping of one part of the bowel inside another to cause obstruction

melena

passage of black & tarry stools

occult blood

Blood detected in stool by means of a chemical test but not apparent to the naked eye.

peritoneum

The membrane that lines, protects, and supports the abdominal organs.

polyp

mass of tissue that projects into the lumen of bowel

proctitis

inflammation of lining of rectum

anastomosis

surgically made union b/w tubular structures

endoscopy

use of endoscope

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon from the cecum to the rectum, using endoscopy

protoscopy

exam of anus by endoscopy

sigmoidoscopy

exam of sigmoid colon by endoscopy

gastroscopy

exam of inside stomach by endoscopy

enema

injection of fluid into rectum

colostomy

artificial opening from the colon to the outside of the body

ileostomy

artificial opening from the ileum to the outside of the body

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set