Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1

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Organ

A part of the body formed of two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a specific function; e.g., the stomach.

Cervical

Refers to the neck or the necklike portion of the organ or structure.

Endocrine System

Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones.

Thoracic

Refers to the CHEST.

Frontal (coronal) section

Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

Buccal

Pertaining to the CHEEK.

Abdomen

Portion of the body between the diaphragm and the pelvis.

Tissue

A group of similar cells (and their intercellular substance) specialized to perform a specific function; primary ______ types of the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.

Axilla

ARMPIT.

Lymphatic System

System consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs and tissues; drains excess tissue fluid from the extracellular space and provides a site for immune surveillance.

Hypothalamus

Region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain.

Transverse (horizontal) Section

A plane running from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.

Organ System

A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function; e.g., the nervous system.

Physiology

Study of the function of living organisms.

Effector

Organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings.

Irritability

Ability to respond to a stimulus.

Muscular System

The organ system consisting of the skeletal muscles of the body and their connective tissue attachments.

Inguinal

Pertaining to the groin region.

Urinary System

System primarily responsible for water electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.

Tarsal

One of the seven bones that form the ankle and heel.

Brachial

Pertaining to the ARM.

Medial

Toward the midline of the body.

Homeostasis

A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body.

Midsagittal (median) Section

Specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline.

Cranial

Pertaining to the SKULL.

Skeletal System

System of the protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage.

Anterior

The front of an organism, organ, or part; the ventral surface.

Negative Feedback Mechanisms

The most common of homeostatic control mechanisms. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.

Excretion

Elimination of waste products from the body.

Distal

Away from the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.

Organism

The living animal (or plant), which represents the sum total of all its organ systems working together to maintain life.

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body.

Ventral

Pertaining to the front; anterior.

Atom

The smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means.

Proximal

Toward the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.

Receptor

(1) A cell or nerve ending of a sensory neuron specialized to respond to particular types of stimuli. (2) Molecule that binds specifically with other molecules e.g., neurotransmitters, hormones, antigens.

Positive Feedback Mechanisms

Feedback that tends to cause the level of a variable to change in the same direction as an initial change.

Carpal

One of the eight bones of the WRIST.

Anatomy

Study of the structure of living organisms.

Cell

The structural and functional unit of living organims; contains a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.

Gland

Organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination.

Sagittal Section

A longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions.

Inferior (caudal)

Pertaining to a position near the tail end of the long axis of the body.

Oxidative Phosphorylation

The synthesis of ATP using energy given off during the electron transport phase of respiration.

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