Functional Groups

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Alcohol

-ol

Aldehyde

-al

Alkene

-ene

Alkyne

-yne

Amide

-amide

Amine

-amine

Arene

none

Carboxylic acid anhydride

-oic anhydride

Carboxylic acid chloride

-oyl chloride

Carboxylic acid

-oic acid

Disulfide

disulfide

Ester

-oate

Ether

ether

Halide

none

Imine (Schiff base)

none

Ketone

-one

Monophosphate

phosphate

Nitrile

-nitrile

Nitro

none

Sulfide

sulfide

Thiol

-thiol

Alkyl halides (haloalkanes)

Have a carbon atom bonded to halogen (-X).

Alcohols

Have a carbon atom bonded to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Ethers

Have two carbon atoms bonded to the same oxygen.

Organophosphates

Have a carbon atom bonded to the oxygen of a phosphate group (-OPO32-).

Amines

Have a carbon bonded to a nitrogen.

Thiols

Have a carbon atom bonded to the sulfur of the -SH group.

Sulfides

Have two carbon atoms bonded to the same sulfur.

Disulfides

Have carbon atoms bonded to two sulfurs that are joined together.

Aldehydes

Have at least one hydrogen bonded to the C=O.

Ketones

Have two carbon atoms bonded to the C=O.

Carboxylic acids

Have one carbon atom and one -OH group bonded to the C=O.

Esters

Have one carbon and one esther-like oxygen bonded to the C=O.

Amides

Have one carbon and one nitrogen bonded to the C=O.

Acid Chlorides

Have one carbon and one chlorine bonded to the C=O.

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