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Active Transport

Process requiring energy for the movement of particles across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient

Alternation Of Generations

In the life cycle of many plants, this is when each generation has two separate bodies, the haploid and the diploid

Anaphase

This is the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes separate to the opposite ends of the cell.

Angiosperm

Means covered seed; these are flowering plants that bear seeds within a layer of tissue or fruit

Animal Cell

This kind of cell does not have a large central vacuole.

Asexual

This is a type of reproduction where one organism divides into two and there is no excahenge of genetic information.

Asexual Reproduction

Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

ATP

This is the main energy storage and transfer molecule in the cell.

Binary Fission

This is a form of asexual reproduction in which one cell or organism is split in two; this is a natural form of cloning and provides
no genetic variety.

Brain

This is an organ of the central nervous system, which has
three distinct parts that control and coordinate the activities of the body.
The cerebrum controls thoughts, voluntary actions, and the sensations related to the five senses. The cerebellum helps with balance and coordination. The stem controls vital and involuntary processes like breathing and your heart beating.

Budding

This is a type of asexual reproduction where an offspring grows out of the body of the parent

Cardiac Muscle

This is a type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium.

Cell

This is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the "building blocks of life."

Cell Cycle

The series of events in a eukaryotic cell that involve growth, replication and division

Cell Membrane

A thin, flexible, semipermeable barrier around the cell which regulates what enters and leaves the cell

Cell Wall

This structure provides support and protection for plant cells

Central Vacuole

These are large compartments within some eukaryotic cells that capture and store food or toxic materials maintain turgor pressure, and dispose of unwanted substances from the cell

Centrioles

These are barrel shaped microtubules in most animal cells, that organize the spindles during cell division

Chlorophyll

This is a green pigment in chloroplasts that traps light energy from the sun

Chloroplast

This is a plastid with chlorophyll in plants that photosynthesize

Chromosome

This is the structure in the cell nucleus that houses a cell's genetic information

Cilia

These are short hair-like organelles on the surface of a eukaryotic cell used for locomotion or sensory functions.

Circulatory

This system transports blood through the body and heart. It transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infection; removes cell wastes; and helps to regulate body temperature. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

Cleavage

This is when minerals break on specific planes

Concentration Gradient

This is the unequal distribution of ions across a cell membrane

Crossing Over

This is the process in which two chromosomes exchange DNA during prophase of meiosis

Cytokinesis

This is the last part of the cell cycle, and it is where the cytoplasm is divides amongst the two new daughter cells

Cytoplasm

This is a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells and serves as the broth of the cellular soup

Cytoskeleton

This is a scaffolding of protein fibers that help a cell keep its shape, and assist cell division and cell movement

Differentiated Cells

These are cells which have become modified and specialized within an organism

Diffusion

The process when molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

Digestive System

This system prepares food for cellular utilization by breaking down food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates wastes. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas, and rectum.

Diploid

This is an organism or cell with two sets of chromosomes

DNA

This holds an organisms hereditary information

Endocrine System

This system controls growth, development and metabolism and maintains homeostasis by contolling glands and hormones. It consists of the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries (in females) and testes (in males).

Endocytosis

This is the process where cells engulf material from outside their cell membranes

Eukaryote

These are cells where the genetic material is contained in membrane-bound nuclei

Excretory System

This system eliminates waste products from the body. It consists of the skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

Exocytosis

This is the transport of material out of a cell by means of a sac or vesicle that first engulfs the material and then is extruded through an opening in the cell membrane.

Experiment

Scientific procedure followed to obtain results for analysis. This is also a means to test a hypothesis

Fertilization

The process of one gamete (sex cell) joining another.

Flagella

These are singular, relatively long, whip-like organelles that many unicellular organisms use for motion

Flower

This is the reproductive part of the plant and it produces seeds and develops the fruit

G 1

This is the period during the cell cycle when the cell is neither preparing for cell division nor dividing; it is just being a cell and doing what it usually does during normal cellular activities.

G 2

This the period during the cell cycle between the DNA replication and mitosis. Chromatin condense into chromosomes and the chromosomes get ready for segregation

Gamete

This is a haploid cell with half the reproductive information from the parent

Golgi Body

This organelle serves to process and package lipids and proteins in the cell.

Guard Cells

This is a pair of leaf epidermal cells that control the opening and closing of stomata

Gymnosperms

Means "naked seeds": Nonflowering vascular plants whose seeds are produced on the scales of cones.

Haploid

This is an organism with one set of chromosomes

Haploid Cell

This is a cell that has one copy of its genetic information in each cell

Heterotrophic Cell

A cell that can not produce its own energy, the energy must be consumed.

Immune and Lymphatic Systems

These systems help protect the body from disease. They collect fluid lost from blood vessels and return it to the circulatory system. They consist of white blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.

Leaf

This is the part of the plant which is above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. It is typically flat, thin and contains chlorophyll.

Leucoplast

This is a type of plastid found in plant cells. It lacks pigments and is used to store starch

Lysosome

These are organelles that digest macromolecules

Meiosis

This is a process where a parent cell divides into four sex cells with half the chromosomes

Metaphase

This is the stage of mitosis where chromosomes align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.

Microscope

Equipment used to magnify and observe small objectsEquipment used to magnify and observe small objects

Mitochondrion

An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells described as "cellular power plants", because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP

Mitosis

The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.

Muscular System

This system is responsible for movement of bones and fluids throughout the body. It helps move food through the digestive system. It consists of skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.

Nervous System

This system receives and transmits information and responses. It depends upon electrical impulses created by the movement of charged particles. It consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Non-Vascular Plant

This is a type of plant, such as a moss, that lacks vascular tissue (xylem or phloem), is generally very small, and reproduces with spores.

Nucleolus

This organelle, found in the nucleus, produces ribosomes

Nucleus

The structure that houses the cells genetic information

Organ

A group of tissues working together to perform a similar function

Organism

Any living thing with one or more cells

Osmosis

The movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to low concentration

Ovary

This is the egg-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.

Passive Transport

A non-energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane with the concentration gradient

Phloem

This is a type of living vascular tissue in plants, that transports sugars from the leaves down to the stems and the roots

Photosynthesis

This is a chemical process that uses light to process carbon dioxide in plants.

Plant

This is any living thing without the power of locomotion that obtain energy from sunlight or make their own food

Plant Cell

This kind of cell has a large central vacuole and a cell wall

Plasmid

This is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is capable of independent replication. It usually occurs in bacteria

Pollen

The cells that carry the male DNA of a seed plant

Pollination

This is a transfer of pollen from anther to stigma

Protein Synthesis

This is a two-part process that ends in the assembly of proteins at the ribosomes within cells. The first part, transcription, begins in the nucleus, when the DNA code is transferred to mRNA. The second part, translation, takes place at the ribosomes, where both mRNA and tRNA work to assemble proteins.

Pseudopodia

This is a shape-changing cell structure used by amoebas to move and to engulf food

Replication

This is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.

Reproductive System

This system produces gametes; in females, nutures and protects developing embryos. It consists of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, and penis (in males); ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina (in females).

Ribosome

This organelle synthesizes proteins

RNA

A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis

Root

This is the part of a vascular plant that is typically below ground level and has no leaves or nodes. Its major functions are to anchor the plant and to absorb water and nutrients.

Seed Dispersal

This is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant

Sexual

This is a type of reproduction where there is a exchange of genetic information in order to create new individuals.

Skeletal Muscle

This is a form of striated, voluntary muscle tissue. It is linked to bone by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons

Skeletal System

This system relates to the structure and support of an organism. It is made of salts and proteins and found in vertebrate animals. It protects internal organs; allows movement; contains cells that produce blood cells. It consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.

Smooth Muscle

This is an involuntary, non-striated muscle found throughout the human body.

Stem

This is the main structural axis of the plant that supports leaves, flowers and fruits; transports fluids; stores nutrients and produces new tissue.

Stomata

These are tiny openings or pores found mostly on the underside of a plant leaf and used for gas exchange

System

This is a group of interdependent organs with similar function

Telophase

This is the final phase of nuclear cell division during which a nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes

Tissue

This is a group of cells with similar structure or function

Transpiration

This is the loss of water from the leaves of a plant

Vacuole

This is a tiny fluid-filled cavity in the cytoplasm. It can be used for storage of biochemicals.

Vascular Plant

This is a type of plant that contains a system of water-carrying vessels (xylem) and sugar carrying vessels (phloem).

Xylem

This is a system of non-living straw-like vascular tissue that carries water from the roots to the stem and leaves of all vascular plants, and forms layers of wood.

Endoplasmic reticulum

This is an organelle in eukaryotic cells with a series of highly folded membranes surrounded in cytoplasm; site of cellular chemical reactions; can either be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (without ribosomes).

Organelle

This is a membrane-bound structure within a eukaryotic cell.

Prokaryotic Cell

A cell that lacks internal membrane-bound structures.

Integumentary System

This system guards against infection, injury, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. It helps regulate body temperature. It consists of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands.

Respiratory System

This system brings in oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body. It consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs.

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