Transport blood from the right ventricle, through the lungs, and back to the left atrium.
Transport blood through all parts of the body from the left ventricle and back to the right atrium.
carry blood away from the heart
The most common blood vessel type.
vessels that carry blood toward the heart
layer of flat cells lining blood and lymphatic vessels and the chambers of the heart. An internal lining of simple squamous epithelial cells
One of the slender connective tissue cells in close relationship to the outside of the capillary wall; it is relatively undifferentiated and may become a fibroblast. Closely associated with endothelial cells, these scattered cells lie between the basement membrane and the endothelial cells.
are less permeable to large molecules than are other capillary types; they exist in smooth muscle, nervous tissue, and many other locations.
endothelial cells have numerous fenestrae; are in tissues where capillaries are highly permeable.
are areas of approximately 70-100 nm in diameter in which the cytoplasm is absent and the plasma membrane consists of a porous diaphragm that is thinner than the normal plasma membrane.
Capillary with caliber of 10-20 um or more; lined with a fenestrated type of endothelium. Are larger in diameter than either continuous or fenestrated capillaries, and their basement membrane is less prominent or completely absent.
are large-diameter sinusoidal capillaries; terminal blood vessels having a larger diameter than an ordinary capillary.
are similar in structure to the sinusoidal capillaries but even larger in diameter. They exist primarily in the spleen, and there are large gaps between the endothelial cells that make up their walls.
Vessels with isolated smooth muscle cells along their walls; located between the arterioles and the true capillaries.
A vessel that extends in a relatively direct fashion from a metarteriole to a venule. Channel for blood from an arteriole to a venule.
Smooth muscle cells located at the origin of the branches. Smooth muscle sphincter that regulates blood flow through a capillary.
The ends of capillaries closest to the arterioles.
The ends closest to venules
allow blood to flow from arterioles to small veins without passing through capillaries.
is an arteriovenous anastamoses that consists of arteries with abundant smooth muscle in their walls.
Pathologic arteriovenous anastomoses
Can result from injury or tumors. They cause the direct flow of blood from arteries to veins and if they are sufficiently large, can lead to heart failure because of the tremendous increase in venous return to the heart.
One of the coats of a blood vessel. From the lumen to the outer wall of the blood vessels, the layers.
Innermost coat of a blood vessel; consists of endothelium, a lamina properia, and an inner elastic membrane.
Internal elastic membrane
separates the tunica intima from the next layer, the tunica media.
the middle layer, consists of smooth muscle cells arranged circularly around the blood vessel. Usually muscular coat of an artery.
Produces a decrease in blood flow. A decrease in blood vessel diameter caused by smooth muscle contraction; decreased diameter of blood vessels.
produces an increase in blood flow, an increase in blood vessel diameter resulting from smooth muscle relaxation. Increased diameter of blood vessels.
External elastic membrane
Separates the tunica media from the tunica adventitia, can be identified at the outer border of the tunica media in some arteries.
Outermost fibrous coat of a vessel or an organ that is derived from the surrounding connective tissue.
have the largest diameters and are often called conducting arteries. Blood pressure is relatively high in these vessels, and it fluctuates between systolic and diastolic values.
include medium-sized and small arteries. The walls of medium-sized arteries are relatively thick, compared with their diameter. Are frequently called distributing arteries.
Transport blood from small arteries to capillaries and are the smallest arteries in which the 3 tunics can be identified.
Minute vein, consisting of endothelium and a few scattered smooth muscles, that carries blood away from capillaries.
Continuous layer, have a tunica adventitia composed of collagenous connective tissue.
They collect blood from small veins and deliver it to large veins.
Transport blood from medium veins to the heart.
begin in a primary capillary network, extend some distance, and end in a secondary capillary network.
allow blood to flow toward the heart, but not in the opposite direction
penetrate from the exterior of the vessel to form a capillary network in the tunica adventitia and the tunica media. Small vessels distributed to the outer and middle coats of larger blood vessels.
hardening of the arteries.
is the deposition of material in the walls of arteries to form distinct plaques.
is inflammation of the veins.
tissue death caused by a reduction in or loss of blood supply.
is the system of blood vessels that carries blood from the right ventricle to of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart.
Large, elastic artery that carries blood from the right ventricle of the heart through the right and left pulmonary arteries.
branch from the pulmonary trunk and carry blood to the lungs to get oxygenated
Carries blood from the lungs and return it back to the left atrium of the heart.
is the system of vessels that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium.
Large, elastic artery that is the main trunk of the systemic arterial system; carries blood from the left ventricle and passes through the thorax and abdomen.
Part of the aorta from which the coronary arteries arise, it passes superiorly from the heart ,is part of the aorta.
One of the 2 arteries that arise from the base of the aorta and carry blood to the cardiac muscle. Encircle the heart like a crown, are the only arteries of the ascending aorta.
Curve between the ascending and descending portions of the aorta.
It extends through the thorax in the left side of the mediastinum and through the abdomen to the superior margin of the pelvis.
is the portion of the descending aorta located in the thorax.
is the part of the descending aorta between the diaphragm and the point at which the aorta divides into the 2 common iliac arteries.
Common iliac arteries
supply blood to the pelvis and lower limbs
This short artery branches at the level of the clavicle to form the right common carotid artery.
Right Common Carotid artery
Transports blood to the right side of the head and neck.
Right Subclavian artery
is below the clavicle; transports blood to the right upper limb.
Left Common Carotid artery
Transports blood to the left side of the head and neck.
Left Subclavian artery
Transports blood to the left upper limb.
Internal and external Carotid arteries
branches from the common carotid arteries in the neck.
Enlargement of the internal carotid artery near the point where the internal carotid artery branches from the common carotid artery; contains baroreceptors.
Left and right vertebral arteries
are branches of the subclavian arteries, they pass through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and enter the cranial cavity through the foramen magnum.
The midline; it gives off branches to the pons and the cerebellum and then branches to form the posterior cerebral artery.
Posterior Cerebral artery
Supply the posterior part of the cerebellum
Middle Cerebral artery
Supply large parts of the lateral cerebral cortex.
Posterior communicating arteries
Unite with the posterior cerebral arteries.
Anterior cerebral arteries
Supply blood to the frontal lobes of the brain. They are connected by an anterior communicating artery.
Anterior communicating artery
Completes a circle around the pituitary gland and the base of the brain.
Cerebral arterial circle
The pituitary gland and the base of the brain.
is located deep to the clavicle.
is the continuation of the subclavian in the axilla
is the continuation of the axillary artery in the axillary artery as it passes into the arm. It divides at the elbow into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Ulnar and radial arteries
form 2 arches within the palm of the hand
Superficial Palmar arch
is formed by the ulnar artery and is completed by anastomosing with the radial artery.
Deep Palmar artery
is formed by the radial artery and is completed by the anastomosing with the ulnar artery.
relating to the digits, fingers, and thumb; branch from each of the 2 palmar arches and unite to form single arteries to the medial and lateral sides of each digit.
supply the thoracic organs
Supply the thoracic wall.
between the ribs, consist of 2 sets anterior and posterior intercostals.
are derived from the internal thoracic arteries. Lie along the inferior margin of each rib.
Internal thoracic arteries
are branches of the subclavian arteries and lie on the inner surface of the anterior thoracic wall.
are derived as bilateral branches directly from the descending aorta. Lie along the inferior margin of each rib.
Superior phrenic arteries
Supply blood to the diaphragm.
is one of the unpaired visceral branches, it's the belly artery below the liver.
Superior mesenteric artery
relating to the mesenteries, its inferior to the stomach along the abdominal aorta.
Inferior mesenteric artery
is inferior to the superior mesentery along the abdominal aorta.
Common iliac arteries
They divide to form the external and internal iliac arteries.
External iliac arteries
enter the lower limbs. It becomes the femoral artery
Internal iliac arteries
Supply the pelvic area.
relating to the thigh; in the thigh which becomes the popliteal.
hamstring area of posterior to the knee; in the popliteal space, gives off the anterior tibial artery.
Anterior tibial artery
just inferior to the knee and then continues as the posterior tibial artery. It becomes the dorsalis pedis artery.
Posterior tibial artery
gives off the fibular artery and then gives rise to the medial and lateral plantar arteries.
Dorsalis pedis artery
at the foot.
or peroneal artery, gives rise to the medial and lateral plantar arteries.
Medial and lateral plantar arteries
The sole of the foot, which give off digital branches to the toes.
to the toes
returns blood from the walls of the heart back to the right atrium.
Superior vena cava
returns blood from the head, neck, thorax, and upper limbs back to the right atrium.
Inferior vena cava
returns blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs back to the right atrium.
Transport blood from the walls of the heart and return it through the coronary sinus to the right atrium.
External jugular veins
are more superficial then the internal jugular, and they drain blood primarily from the posterior head and neck. It drains into the subclavian vein.
Internal jugular veins
are much larger and deeper than the external jugular veins. They drain blood from the cranial cavity and the anterior head, face, and neck. It is formed primarily as the continuation of the venous sinuses of the cranial cavity. They join the subclavian veins on each side of the body to form the brachiocephalic veins.
are actually spaces within the dura mater surrounding the brain
on each side of the body to from the brachiocephalic veins.
towards the head, is in the upper limb below the right brachiocephalic vein. Are responsible for draining most of the blood from the upper limbs.
on the upper limb just above the brachial veins. Are responsible for draining most of the blood from the upper limbs. It becomes the axillary vein as it courses through the axillary region.
are responsible for draining most of the blood from the upper limbs. Accompany the brachial artery and empty into the axillary vein.
becomes the subclavian vein at the margin of the rib.
Median cubital vein
pertaining to the elbow, is a variable vein that usually connects the cephalic vein or its tributaries with the basilic vein.
Radial and ulnar veins
are named for the arteries they attend. They are usually paired, with one small vein lying on each side of the artery. They empty into the brachial veins.
are unpaired veins that return blood from the thorax to the superior vena cava. It is above the posterior intercostal veins.
Internal thoracic veins
receive blood from the anterior intercostal veins.
Anterior intercostal veins
give blood to the internal thoracic veins.
Posterior intercostal veins
Collects blood from the posterior thoracic wall, they drain into the azygos vein on the right and the hemiazygos vein or the accessory hemiazygos veins on the left.
is on the right of the thorax below the accessory hemiazygos vein.
Accessory hemiazygos vein
on the left.
Ascending lumbar veins
are continuous superiorly with the hemiazygos on the left and the azygos on the right.
Internal iliac veins
drain the pelvis and join the external iliac veins from the lower limbs to form the common iliac veins.
External iliac veins
form the common iliac veins with the internal iliac veins.
Common iliac veins
Unite to form the inferior vena cava.
Hepatic portal system
System of portal veins that carries blood from the intestines, stomach, spleen, and pancreas to the liver.
Hepatic portal vein
Portal vein formed by the superior mesenteric and splenic veins and entering the liver.
Superior mesenteric vein
drains the small intestine
drains the spleen, it receives the inferior mesenteric vein.
Inferior mesenteric vein
drains part of the large intestine, and the pancreatic veins.
drain the pancreas
empty into the hepatic veins.
Vein that drains the liver into the inferior vena cava.
drain the gallbladder.
altering the structure of a substance of making it water-soluble.
Anterior and posterior tibial veins
are paired and accompany the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. They unite just inferior to the knee to form the single popliteal vein.
which ascends through the thigh and becomes the femoral vein.
it becomes the external iliac vein.
or peroneal veins, are also paired in each leg and accompany the fibular arteries. They empty into the posterior tibial veins.
Great Saphenous vein
is the longest vein in the body, originates over the dorsal and medial side of the foot and ascends along the medial side of the leg and thigh to empty into the femoral vein.
Small Saphenous vein
begins over the lateral side of the foot and ascends along the posterior leg to the popliteal space, where it empties into the popliteal vein.
relative motion of layers of a fluid along smooth, concentric parallel paths.
When the rate of flow exceeds a critical velocity or when the fluid passes a constriction, a sharp turn, or a rough surface.
is a measure of the force blood exerts against blood vessel walls.
Mercury (Hg) manometer
measures blood pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
Tube; often inserted into an artery or vein.
relating to auscultation, listening to the sounds made by the various body structures as a diagnostic method. To measure blood pressure, they wrap a cuff connected to a sphygmomanometer around the person's arm.
instrument for measuring blood pressure.
Sounds heard over an artery when blood pressure is determined by the auscultatory method; caused by turbulent flow of blood.
The pressure at which the korotkoff sound is first heard.
The pressure at which continuous laminar flow is reestablished.
at which blood or any other liquid flows through a tube can be expressed as the volume that passes a specific point per unit of time.
Cardiac output (CO)
Volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute; also called minute volume.
The volume of a fluid passing per unit of time through a tube is directly proportional to the pressure difference between its ends and to the 4th power of the internal radius of the tube and inversely proportional to the tube's length and the viscosity of the fluid.
is a measure of a liquid's resistance to flow.
is the percentage of the total blood volume composed of red blood cells.
Critical closing Pressure
The pressure below which the vessel collapses and blood flow through the vessel stops.
The force that stretches the wall of a blood vessel is proportional to the radius of the vessel times the blood pressure.
dilated portion of the artery; a part of an arterial wall becomes weakened so a bulge forms in it.
is the tendency for blood vessel volume to increase as blood pressure increases.
The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures.
(Pressure wave), The ejection of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta produces this, it travels rapidly along the arteries.
Taken at the radial artery, is traditionally used because it is the most easily accessible artery in the body.
is the movement of substances into and out of capillaries. It is the process by which cells receive everything they need to survive and to eliminate metabolic waste products.
Tendency for solute molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration in a solution.
Net filtration Pressure (NFP)
is the force responsible for moving fluid across capillary walls. It is the difference between net hydrostatic pressure and net osmotic pressure. NFP= Net hydrostatic pressure - Net osmotic pressure
Net hydrostatic Pressure
is the difference in pressure between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
Interstitial fluid Pressure (IFP)
The pressure of interstitial fluid within the tissue spaces, is 3 mm Hg.
Net Osmotic Pressure
is the difference in osmotic pressure between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
Blood colloid osmotic Pressure (BCOP)
The osmotic pressure caused by the plasma proteins.
Interstitial colloid osmotic Pressure (ICOP)
The osmotic pressure caused by proteins in the interstitial fluid.
is a continual state of partial contraction of the veins as a result of sympathetic stimulation.
are produced in the extracellular fluid as the rate of metabolism increases.
Periodic contraction and relaxation of the precapillary sphincter, resulting in cyclic blood flow through capillaries.
The maintenance of a relatively constant blood flow through a tissue despite relatively large changes in blood pressure.
Area within the medulla oblongata that regulates the diameter of blood vessels by way of the sympathetic nervous system.
The peripheral blood vessels are partially constricted.
or essential hypertension, which means that the cause of the condition is unknown.
Mean arterial Pressure (MAP)
is slightly less than average of systolic and diastolic pressures because diastole lasts longer than systole.
Cardiac output (CO)
is the volume of blood pumped by the heart each minute. It is equal to the heart rate times the stroke volume.
Peripheral resistance (PR)
is the resistance to blood flow in all blood vessels
or pressoreceptors, are sensory receptors sensitive to stretch.
Carotid sinus reflex
is activated by stimulation of baroreceptors in the carotid sinus.
Aortic arch reflex
is activated by stimulation of baroreceptors in the aortic arch.
help maintain homeostasis when oxygen tension in the blood decreases or when carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion concentrations increase. They are located in the carotid bodies.
Small organs approximately 1-2 mm in diameter, which lie near the carotid sinuses, and in several aortic bodies.
lie adjacent to the aorta. One of the smallest bilateral structures, similar to the carotid bodies, attached to a small branch of the aorta near its arch.
Central nervous system (CNS) ischemic response
Elevated blood pressure in response to lack of blood flow to the medulla oblongata of the brain.
helps regulate blood pressure by altering blood volume.
Enzyme secreted by the juxta-glomerular appartus that converts angio-tensinogen to angiotensin I.
Complex consisting of juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole and macular densa cells of the distal convoluted tubule near the renal corpuscle; secretes rennin.
renin acts on a plasma protein, synthesized by the liver, to split a fragment off one end.
Peptide derived when renin acts on angiotensinogen.
angiotensin converting enzyme
found primarily in small blood vessels of the lungs, cleaves 2 additional amino acids from angiotensin I to produce angiotensin II.
Peptide derived from angiotensin I; stimulates vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion; also called active angiotensin
Steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex that facilitates potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen secretion
Antidiuretic hormone (Vaspressin) mechanism
Hormone secreted from the neurohy-pophysis that acts on the kidney to reduce the output of urine; also called vasopressin because it causes vasoconstriction.
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
Peptide released from the atria when the atrial blood pressure in increased; lowers blood pressure by increasing the rate of urinary production, thus reducing blood volume.
is inadequate blood flow throughout the body due to the failure of the mechanisms that maintain normal blood pressure.
blood pressure decreases only a moderate amount, and the mechanisms that regulate blood pressure successfully reestablish normal blood pressure and blood flow.
the regulatory mechanisms are inadequate to compensate for the reduction in blood volume.
without medical intervention, progressive shock leads to this, which results in death, regardless of the medical treatment applied.
which includes transfusions of whole blood, plasma, artificial solutions called plasma substitutes, and physiological saline solutions, is administered to increase blood volume.
is caused by external or internal bleeding that reduces blood volume.
Plasma loss shock
is reduced blood volume due to loss of plasma into the interstitial spaces and greatly increased blood viscosity.
results from a severe and prolonged shortage of fluid intake.
Severe diarrhea or vomiting
Causes a loss of plasma through the intestinal wall.
is a rapid loss of vasomotor tone, leading to vasodilation so extensive that blood pressure declines severely.
includes deep general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia that decrease the activity of the medullary vasomotor center or the sympathetic nerve fibers.
leads to an ineffective medullary vasomotor function.
(vasovagal syncope) stems from emotions that cause strong parasympathetic stimulation of the heart and results in vasodilation in skeletal muscles and in the viscera.
results from an allergic response in which the release of inflammatory substances increases vasodilation and capillary permeability.
or blood poisoning, results from peritoneal, systemic, and gangrenous infections that cause the release of toxic substances into the circulatory system, depressing the activity of the heart and leading to vasodilation and increased capillary permeability.
Occurs when the heart stops pumping in response to various conditions, such as heart attack or electrocution.
Fluid shift mechanism
begins to act within a few minutes but requires hours to achieve its full functional capacity. It plays a very important role when dehydration develops over several hours, or when a large volume of saline is administered over several hours. It occurs in response to small changes in pressures across capillary walls.
is a characteristic of smooth muscle cells.