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American Pageant 13th edition, Unit 7

Josiah Strong/Alfred Mahan

Josiah Strong was one of the founders of the "Social Gospel" Mahan wrote The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783

William Randolph Hearst/Joseph Pulitzer

New York Journal introduced yellow journalism and opened the way to mass circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue and appealed to the reader with multiple forms of news, entertainment and advertising

George Dewey

admiral of the US Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Sp-Am war. He was alsot eh only person in the history of the US to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank.

Emilio Aguinaldo

played an instrumental role during the Philippine's revolution against Spain and the subsequent Phil-Am War that resisted Am occupation

Teller Amendment/Platt Amendment

Teller: could not annex Cuba but only leave control of the island to the people; Platt - US would leave Cuba alone, but would be able to interfere at any time, they could trade freely and would also gain certain ideal naval locations

Monroe Doctrine

enforced underneath James Monroe (1817-1825); basically told Eastern hemisphere powers to end the search for land able to be colonized in the Western hemisphere

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China

Teddy Roosevelt

president 1901-1909; supported Pure Food and Drug Law, created the Bureau of Corporations to inspect business earnings, prohibited discrimination by the railroads, and enforced the Sherman Anti-trust Act. He changed the nation's foreign policy by making it more imperialistic and adding new lands like Hawaii, etc. ("big stick" diplomacy)

Roosevelt Corollary

a perversion of the Monroe Doctrine, it basically gave bullying rights to the United States (happened after Br and Gr sent troops to enforce debt paying to L.A.)

TR and the Treaty or Portsmouth

after Japan attacked Russia, Japan appealed to TR for mediation; TR negotiated a deal in which Japan got half of Sakhalin but no indemnity for its losses

The Insular Cases

Supreme Court barely ruled that the Constitution did not have full authority on how to deal with Cuba nd PR, essentially letting CC do whatever they wanted; cases said the island residents do not necessarily share same rights as Am's

Drago Doctrine

(TR) 1902 No nation should use force to collect debts unless debtor nation refused arbitration, Luis Drago

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries

Square Deal

President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed

Initiative, referendum, recall

The Progressives favored the "initiative" so that voters could directly propose legislation, the "referendum" so that the people could vote on laws that affected them, and the "recall" to remove bad officials from office.

Henry Demarest Lloyd

wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894; part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Reform Amendments (16-19)

16 - federal income tax; 17 - direct election of senators; 18 - prohibition of alcohol; 19 - universal women suffrage

Jacob Riis

writer of How the Other Half Lives, a book about the New York slums and its inhabitants

Elkins Act

1903; fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them

Ida Tarbell

launched a devastating expose about Standard Oil and its ruthlessness

Hepburn Act

1906; prohibited free passes; gave ICC enough power to regulate the economy; allowed it to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies

Lincoln Steffens

launched a series of articles in McClure's entitled "The Shame of the Cities," in which he unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and the government

Northern Securities Case

the Supreme Court upheld TR's antitrust suit and ordered Northern Securities to dissolve, a decision that angered Wall Street but helped TR's image.

David Phillips

charged that 75 of the 90 U.S. Senators did not represent the people, but actually the railroads and trusts

Meat Inspection Act

1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines

Robert M. LaFollete

1911 - National Progressive Republican League was formed, with LaFollette as its leader

Pure Food and Drug Act

the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs

Hiram Johnson

Other states also took to regulate railroads and trusts, such as California, which was led by Governor Hiram W. Johnson.

Newlands Reclamation Act

1902 act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states

Charles Evans Hughes

governor of New York, gained fame by investigating the malpractices of gas and insurance companies

Payne-Aldrich Act

Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Republican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff)

Francis Willard

founded Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WTCU)

Ballinger-Pinchot Affair

Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger
opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate
development and was criticized by Forestry chief Gifford Pinchot, who
was then fired by Taft; helped divided the Republican party

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen

William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S. (1909-1913); he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters

Herbert Croly

Roosevelt's New Nationalism was inspired by Herbert Croly's The Promise of American Life (1910), and it stated that
the government should control the bad trusts, leaving the good trusts
alone and free to operate

Underwood Tariff

substantially reduced import fees and enacted a graduated income tax (under the approval of the recent 16th Amendment)

Eugene Debs

Socialist Eugene V. Debs racked up over 900,000 popular votes, while the combined popular totals of TR and Taft exceeded Wilson. Essentially, TR's participation had cost the Republicans the election

Federal Reserve Act

a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply

Louis D. Brandeis

wrote Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It (1914) furthermore showing the problems of American finances at the time

Federal Trade Commission

the FTC oversaw the Federal Trade Commission Act, which empowered a president-appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, & bribery

Venustiano Carranza

(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920); president in 1917

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act's list of practices that were objectionable, exempted labor unions from being called trusts (as they had been called by the Supreme Court under the Sherman Act), and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members

Pancho Villa

Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor

Jones Act

granted full territorial status to the Philippines and promised independence as soon as a stable government could be established

John J. Pershing

Wilson sent General John J. Pershing to capture Villa, and he penetrated deep into Mexico, clashed with Carranza's and Villa's different forces, but didn't take Villa

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

Kaiser Wilhelm II

was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe

Sussex Pledge

A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them

Gavrilo Princip

The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Von Schlieffen Plan

The plan was devised by Alfred von Schlieffen. It involved attacking France through Belgium in the event of war with France. The aim was to defeat France as quickly as possible. It was also called the Hammer Plan

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s

George Creel

Creel organization sent out an army of 75,000 men to deliver
speeches in favor of the war, showered millions of pamphlets containing
the most potent "Wilsonisms" upon the world, splashed posters and billboards that had emotional appeals, and showed anti-German movies like The Kaiser and The Beast of Berlin; disillusioned America

Espionage and Sedition Act

showed American fears and paranoia about Germans and others perceived as a threat

Bernard Baruch

Wilson named Bernard Baruch to head the War Industries Board, but this group never had much power and was disbanded soon after the armistice.

War Industries Board

group never had much power and was disbanded soon after the armistice

Marshal Foch

one commander, the French Marshal Foch, for the first time, led the Allies and just before the Germans were about to invade Paris and knock out France, American reinforcements arrived and pushed the Germans back

IWW

Antiwar Socialists and the members of the radical union Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were often prosecuted, including Socialist
Eugene V. Debs and IWW leader William D. Haywood, who were arrested,
convicted, and sent to prison.

Henry Cabot Lodge

very intelligent man who used to be the "scholar in politics" until Wilson came along and was therefore jealous and spiteful of Wilson, the Republicans got even more angry

Food Administration

Herbert Hoover was chosen to head the Food Administration, since he had organized a hugely successful voluntary food drive for the people
of Belgium

Warren G. Harding

chosen to be the republican candidate and was swept into power

Bolshevik Revolution

seized control of Russia, they withdrew the nation from the war, freeing up thousands of German troops to fight on
the Western Front

James M. Cox

1920 Democratic representative

The Big Four

Italy, led by Vittorio Orlando, France, led by Georges Clemenceau, Britain, led by David Lloyd George, and the U.S., led by Wilson—basically dictated the terms of the treaty.

Normalcy

"a return to normalcy" was Harding's slogan for presidential election in 1920

Treaty of Versailles

forced upon Germany under the threat that if it didn't sign the treaty, war would resume, and when the Germans saw all that Wilson had compromised to get his League of Nations, they cried betrayal, because the treaty did not contain much of the Fourteen Points like the Germans had hoped it would

Zimmerman Note

promise to Mexico that if they fought with America they would retrieve lands back America had taken

Irreconcilables/Rerservationists

Wilson decided to take a tour to gain support for the treaty, but trailing him like bloodhounds were Senators Borah and Johnson, two of the "irreconcilables," who verbally attacked him.

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