Micro 1-4

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Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to.....

View protozoa and bacteria

Microbes that can live in the presence or absence of an oxygen are called

Facultative anaerobes

Name 5 characteristics of fungi

1. eukaryotes, 2. mold from hyphae, 3. have a cell wall, 4. are unicellular.... 5. they are NOT photosynthetic.

5 characteristics of a virus

1. they are acellular, 2. they are composed of genetic material and protein, 3. they are smaller than prokaryotic cells, 4. they are obligatory parasites, 5. they are NOT visible under a light microscope

The first true vaccine protected against a _______ pathogen

Viral

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of what type of microbe?

Fungus

Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of......

genetic engineering

Are protozoa single or multi cellular?

Single

Epidemiology

The study of occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease

Biotechnology

The use of microbes in the manufacture of usefull products

Bioremediation

The use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments

Serology

The study of the blood components that fight infection

Biochemistry

The study of the chemical reactions associated with living things

T/F.... Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups

True

T/F....The production of human blood clotting factor by E.coli is an example of bioremediation

F

T/F..... Gene therapy is a modern approach to preventing infectious disease

F

Can fermentation occur in the absence of living cells?

Yes

Microbes that move by means of cilia are

Ciliates

A cell that contains a nucleus is called....

Eukaryotic

Microbes that cause infectious disease are called

Pathogens

Bacteria that can live without oxygen are termed

Anerobes

What term synonymous with immunization, is derived from the latin name of the cowpox virus?

Vaccination

Cellular organelles and viruses are generally measured in

Nanometers

The ability of a lens to gather light is referred to as its

numerical aperture (wavelength + resolution)

Name two types of magnifying lenses

Objective and Ocular

Why does immersion oil improve resolution?

It increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speed

The microscope freferred for viewing living specimens is the

Phase-contrast

Name four types of light microscopes

fluorescent, confocal, phase-contrast and bright field

Which of the following microscopes produces the highest resolution images?

atomic force

If a microbiology lab tech. left the safranin out of the gram stain procedure what would be the result?

Gram-positive cells would be purple, and Gram negative cells would be colorless.

Name four components common to both the Gram-stain and the acid -fast stain

Primary stain, counterstain, a decolorizing agent and a counterstain. (a mordant is NOT common to both procedures)

A patient suffering from t.b. could be diagnosed by use of the _________ stain

Acid fast

Name two staining procedures that use heat to drive the stain in.

Acid fast and endospore stains.

Carbolfuchsin is the ________ in the acid fast stain.

Primary stain

Name four components af electron microscopy stains

tungsten, lead, uranium and osmium....... Eosin is NOT

The rules of naming organisms are called

Nomenclature

Carl Woese proposed the concept of the domain based on differences of which cellular molecules?

Ribosomal RNA

Which classification method relies on the morphology of organisms?

physical characteristics

a cells G+C ratio is associated with which classification method?

analysis of nucleic acids

Name four components associated with smear preparation

spreading the specimen onto the slide, fixation using heat, killing the microbes in the specimen and fixation using methanol or formalin. .....NOT agglutination of the specimen

What are the three domains proposed by Carl Woese?

Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya

Can the Gram stain be used to distingguish bacteria based of the structure of their cell walls?

Yes

Do acid-fast cells such as Mycobacterium lose the color of the primary stain in the presence of hydrochloric acid?

Yes

Which refracts more, light rays passed through the edge of a curved lens, or those which pass through the center?

The edge

What particle found in the nucleus of an atom has no electrical charge?

Neutron

An atom that has 6 protons and 7 neutrons is called?

Isotope

When is an atom electrically neutral?

when it has an equal number of electrons and protons.

which parts of the atoms interact in a chemical reaction?

Electrons

The valence of an atom represents

its ability to interact with other atoms

the type of bond produced when atoms share electrons equally is

a nonpolar covalent bond

The type of bond produced when atoms with significantly different electronegativities share electrons is

a polar covalent bond

what are associated with ionic bonds?

cations, electrolytes, salts and anions...... NOT radioactivity.

Compounds that readily dissociate in water are

either polar or ionic

The reverse of a dehydration syntheses reaction is a

hydrolytic reaction

an acid dissociates in water to release

both anions and cations

which PH would be alkaline?

8.0... PH with numbers lower than 7 are acidic, while PH with higher numbers are basic or alkaline.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of phoshpolipids

they contain fatty acids that associate with water.

Fats, proteins and complex carbohydrates are all produced by

dehydration synthesis

What is a false statement about proteins

Their primary function is energy storage

All of the following are components of amino acid except

A pentose group

Which of the following is not found in proteins?

purines

Which of the following are examples of pyrimidines?

cytosine and thymine

The "spine" of the DNA molecule is composed of

alternating phosphates and pentoses

Which of the following statements concerning nucleic acids is FALSE?

the nucleic acid polymer is composed of peptide bonds

An increase in the PH of a solution by 2 whole numbers represents a change in the number of hydrogen ions by what factor?

100

Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of:

responsiveness

Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?

tubulin

Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?

both fimbriae and glycocalyces

A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of

Positive Phototaxis

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?

Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin

Which of the following is not a component of bacterial cell walls?

tubulin

Lipid A is also known as

endotoxin

Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by

the absence of a cell wall

Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?

During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.

ATP is expended in which of the following processes?

both active and transport and group translocation

when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called?

crenation

One lipid found in eukaryotes but NOT in procakaryotes is

???

Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?

both facilitated diffusion and active transport

which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?

mycolic acid

True or False: Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis

False

True of False; The process of facilitated diffusion requires an input of energy

False

True or False: The golgi body prepares cellular products for export

True

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