What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, citric acid cycle and oxydative phosphorylation
What happens in glycolysis?
Breaks down glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
What happens in the citric acid cycle?
Completes the breakdown of glucose
What happens in oxydative phosphorylation?
Accounts for most of the ATP synthesis
What processes generates most ATP?
Why does oxidative phosphorylation generate most ATP?
Because it is powered by redox reactions.
What kind of reactions power oxidative phosphorylation?
What is the primary source of energy in cells?
How does glycolysis harvest energy?
by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
What is glycolysis?
the splitting of the sugar
What does glycolysis do?
breaks down glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
Where does glycolysis occur?
What are the two phases of glycolysis?
energy investment phase and energy pay off phase
Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, glycolysis does not...
unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria, glycolysis takes place in the...
Is glycolysis part of both aerobic AND anaerobic respiration?
What does a 2ATP investment in glycolisis result in?
a 4 ATP pay off
A 4 ATP pay off is a result of a... (in glycolisis)
2 ATP investment.
Is pyruvate a 3 carbon compound?
Pyruvate is a...
3 carbon compound.
Do all living things respire?
In glycolisis, the splitting produces energy that is stored in...
In glycolysis, the splitting produces energy that is stored in ATP and a molecule called...
In redox reactions, electrons are...
Are electrons gained in redox reactions?
What are the raw materials of glycolysis?
Glucose, 2 ATP, NAD, and enzymes.
What is the end product of glycolysis? (hint: 2, 4, 2)
2 pyruvate, 4ATP, 2NADH
a mechanical process to bring air in or to exhale
Cellular respiration is... (definition)
a chemical process that occurs within cells.
Anaerobic respiration is...
respiration withOUT oxygen
Aerobic respiration is...
What do we need ATP for?
Any time you have a chemical reaction, which subatomic particles are being moved around?
If you do not have all the material necessary for glycolysis it will..
Is there a limit to how much NAD can be used in cells?
Fermentation can be used to produce...
beer, yoghurt and different types of cheese.
What does fermentation consist of?
Glycolysis and reactions that regenerate NAD+
What can the glycolysis and reactions that regenerate NAD+ be reused for?
What are two common types of fermentation?
Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
What happens in alcohol fermentation?
Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, with the first releasing CO2
What is pyruvate converted to in two steps during alcohol fermentation?
How many steps occur during alcohol fermentation?
What does the first step of the fermentation process in alcohol involve?
the release of CO2
What is alcohol fermentation by yeast used for? (three examples)
Brewing, winemaking, and baking.
What does lactic acid fermentation result in?
The production of lactate.
Ethanol is a...
two carbon molecule.
Lactate, like pyruvate, is a...
three carbon molecule.
What's the purpose of converting pyruvate to "ethanol and CO2" and Lactate?
To convert the NADH back to NAD.
What's the group that makes things like Ethanol alcohol?
Do both Fermentation and Cellular Respiration use glycolysis to oxidize glucose (and other organic fuels) to pyruvate?
What is different between the processes of Fermentation and Cellular Respiration?
They have different final electron acceptors.
What kind of molecule is used in the final electron acceptors in fermentation?
an organic molecule.
What kind of molecule is used in the final electron acceptors in Cellular Respiration?
Which produces more ATP, Fermentation or Cellular Respiration?
Does Cellular Respiration produce more ATP than Fermentation?
Does Fermentation produce more ATP than Cellular Respiration?
Are there some bacteria which cannot survive with oxygen?
What is one important material in the Citric Acid Cycle?
How much ATP is produced in fermentation?