Who started the Vocation Bureau in Boston and is considered the "Father of Guidance"?
True or False: The first form of "counseling" was career counseling.
Inventor of assessment and instruments utilized in the Trait and Factor Approach at the University of Minnesota
Trait and Factor
This career counseling approach is an assessment of the characteristics of both the person & the job
During the Great Depression, these two theorists brought concepts from Parson's vocational work and concepts from other theorists (including attempts to measure differences in individual capacities and aptitudes; investigations of differential prediction of intelligence; and utilization of such individual differences in industrial applications) to create the theoretical approach behind TRAIT AND FACTOR.
According to Trait & Factor, human behavior can be defined by a set of _______, consisting of aptitudes, achievements, personalities, and interests
According to Trait & Factor, human aptitudes, achievements, personalities, and interests can be integrated in a variety of ways to form constellations of individual characteristics called _______, which can be indicative of individual job performance.
Trait and Factor
This approach was put to maximum use in the military's selection and classification efforts during World War II and in developing student personnel services on college campuses.
Assessment instruments and occupational information materials
Since the Trait & Factor approach itself is not used and can only be found in text books today, what about this approach has steadily evolved, still valuable and widely utilized today?
Whose theory of vocational fit between personalities of
people and environments is probably one of the most researched and validated theories of personality?
Self-Understanding, Knowledge, Work, Self, Work
Name the three steps in the Trait & Factor Approach:
1. Gaining ____-___________, 2. Obtaining ___________ about the world of _______, 3. Integrating information about one's _____ and the world of _____.
SAT, DAT, O*Net Ability Profile
Aptitude Instruments have been used to predict future success in educational programs or occupational training. Give 3 examples of such instruments that may be used in the Trait & Factor Approach in Step 1 of Gaining Self Understanding.
2. Obtaining knowledge about the world of work
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), since replaced by O*Net, classifies about 12,000 occupations that existed in the United States as of 1991 and could be used during which stage of the Trait and Factor theory?
3. Integrating information about one's self and the world of work.
The SIGI3 or DISCOVER, are computer guidance systems that combine tests and occupational information in a way that the client can meet their own individual needs for self-assessment and occupational information. What stage of the Trait and Factor Theory would this be useful?
Complex work can help individuals increase their ability to deal effectively with complex intellectual tasks; conversely, individuals can lose their ability to solve complex problems if they no longer deal with challenging tasks. The term ________ _______ refers to the degree of which the work requires thought and independent judgment
Status Attainment Theory
Focuses on predicting an individual's occupational role from the father's occupation ~ essentially, achievement & social status influence occupational selection.
Human Capital Theory
This theory asserts that Individuals invest in their own education and training so that they will receive increased lifetime earnings ~ career earnings are seen as a function of ability, education, and training combined with the effort to produce effectively.
Compared to Trait & Factor, the Human Capital Theory emphasizes the role of the assessment of interests and abilities in selecting an occupation. However, it differs from Trait & Factor in that it emphasizes career choice as a long-term process and investment and focuses on ______.
The trait and factor approach asserts that
a. Job selection is a long-term development process
b. testing is an important part of the counseling process
c. a counselor can match the correct person with the appropriate job
d. b and c
Lifestyle and Career Develpoment have been emphasized
a. only since the late 1950s
b. only since the late 1960s
c. only since nondirective counseling became popular
d. since the beginning of the counseling and guidance movement and are still a major area of concern
What statement is not true of the trait-and-factor approach to career counseling?
a. The approach attempts to match the person's traits with the requirements of a job.
b. The approach usually relies on psychometric information.
c. The approach is developmental and thus focus on career maturity.
d. The approach is associated with the work of Parsons and Williamson.
The trait and factor approach fails to take ______ into account.
a. individual change throughout the lifespan
b. relevant psychometric data
d. job requirements
job occupation career
A ____ refers to a given position or similar positions within an organization. An ______ is broader and refers to similar jobs occupied via different people in different settings. A _____ is the broadest category because it depicts a person's lifetime positions plus leisure.
Holland's Theory of Types
In what theory does the counselor attempt to find a job for the client in which the personality/environment interaction is congruent?
How many major personality categories exist according to John Holland's approach?
artistic, conventional, enterprising, investigative, realistic, and social
Holland mentioned six modal orientations. What are they?
True or False: Holland did indeed believe in career stereotypes.
True or False: In regard to an individual's behavioral style or so-called modal orientation, Holland believed that every person has a pure or discrete orientation that fits perfectly into one of the six categories.
True or False: In regard to an individual's behavioral style or so-called modal orientation, Holland believed most people are not pure personality types and thus can best be described by a distribution of types, such as Realistic, Social, Investigative (RSI).
True or False: Holland believed that a given occupation will tend to at tract persons with similar personalities.
Dawis & Lofquist
Who are the theorist behind Work Adjustment Theory?
Trait & Factor
Work Adjustment Theory evolved out of what other theory?
Satisfaction and Satisfactoriness
What are the two major components to the prediction of work adjustment?
The General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) is an example of a measure of _______.
The Minnesota Importance Questionnaire is a measure of 20 ______, from which 6 _____ can be derived.
celerity, pace, rhythm, endurance
While there are no scales available to measure the personality styles outlined by the Work Adjustment Theory, what are the 4 personality characteristics this theory examines?:
______ : how quickly one approaches a task
______ : with how much intensity
______: in what particular pattern
______: for how long someone is willing to work on a task
Work Adjustment Theory
What theory asserts that interests are a secondary concept that can be derived from values and abilities and does not feature interest inventories in its approach to career counseling?
Vocational Preference Inventory and The Self Directed Search
These two psychological inventories are assessments of personality through measuring self-perceived competencies and interests and are utilized in Holland's Theory of Types.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, construction sites, factories, garages are all examples of ______ work environments.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, programmers, biologists, mathematicians, vets, science teachers are all examples of ______ workers.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, musicians, fine artists, free lance writers are all examples of ______ occupations.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, teachers, MHW, social service providers, psychologists, psychiatrists are all examples of _____ occupations.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, the President of the United States is most likely to be what personality type?
According to Holland's Theory of Types, executive assistance, accountant, librarians, bankers are all examples of _____ occupations.
This construct in Holland's Theory of Types describes the relationship between personality and the work environment. If there is a match, the needs of both the worker and the employer are met.
This construct in Holland's Theory of Types helps clarify how clearly an individual and an environments belongs to one or two types - some people will be clear examples of one type, while others may have interests and skills across all six - most people are likely to have one, two, or three dominant types.
This construct in Holland's Theory of Types refers to the similarity and dissimilarity of certain types. For example, Social & Artistic types are similar (close together), while Social type and Realistic types are quite different from each other. Some people have personality types that appear to contradict each other; in that case, finding a working environment that meets all their types may be difficult and they may need to find one that fits one or two.
This construct in Holland's Theory of Types refers to the clarity and stability of a person's current and future goals, as well as the stability of the work environment and the creation of this clarity can be an important goal of career counseling.
Myers-Briggs Type Theory
This theory is one of personality that can fit within a Trait and Factor Approach as a tool in career counseling.
integrating information about oneself and the world of work
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assesses personality and lists occupations that certain personalities work in. Matching an individuals Myers-Briggs personality type to an occupation would be what step in a Trait and Factor Approach?
Ginzberg, Ginzberg, Axelrad, Herma
Developmental career theorists view career choice as an on-going or so-called longitudinal process rather than a single decision made at one point in time. The pioneer theorists in this area -- who were the first to forsake the matching models -- were:
Who is the theorists behind the developmental theory of occupational aspirations that provides significant insight about the development of gender-role stereotypes in childhood and an understanding of the development of women's as well as men's, career choices?
This theorists developmental theory is a person-environment interaction model that goes on throughout our entire life; one of only a few theories that cover the entire lifespan. This developmental theorist developed inventories to validate the constructs of his theory, thus providing instrumentation to be used in counseling. Name the theorist.
concrete operations 7-11
According to Piaget, children that are in the _______ period of cognitive development will be able to learn about what a dentist does and how they use their equipment, but may have a difficult time understanding how long the educational training is to become a dentist or how much money a dentist makes. This stage occurs between ages ____ - ____.
formal operations 12
According to Piaget, children that are in the _______ period of cognitive developmental can begin to grasp time-concepts, such as how long it takes to get a 4-year degree, and abstract concepts such as what it means to want to "help others feel better about themselves." This stage beings at age ____.
Industry versus Inferiority 6-11
According to Erik Erikson, children at the _______ stage of their psychosocial development can begin to feel a sense of achievement by organizing, developing, and applying information. If they do not master these skills, they have a sense of failure. They begin to understand what it means to "work" and feel an accomplishment for it. This stage occurs between the ages of ____ - ____.
True or False: Children's aspirations to their parents' occupations are influenced by their perception of how satisfied their parents are with their own work.
Super's emphasis on the role of key figures in the informational acquisition of children is consistent with what theorist's view that a significant method of learning for children is imitation.
During elementary school years, children are often used to being told what to do by teachers/parents - devise rules to be followed in games on the playground. This is example of _______ (external / internal) control.
As children are successful in completing tasks and projects, they develop a sense of autonomy and being in control of future events... also known as ________ (internal / external) control.
It is unrealistic for children under 9 to think about planning future vocational or higher education, as they have not yet developed a __________ ___________.
This construct is at the core of Super's developmental theory - how individuals perceive themselves and interact is a reflection of personality, needs, values, and interests and these change over the life-span. This construct is subjective and thus contradictory to the Trait and Factor approach, which emphasizes objective or outside measures of the self (interest inventories/aptitude tests).
This construct is another way of viewing an organizing concept of the self; created as children develop views of themselves and workers as well as places of work
Perception of occupational stereotypes
An image norm that refer to a belief that one must have a certain image in order to enter a particular occupation
Perception of one's self-image
An image norm that includes views of one's physical appearance; characteristics such as age, gender, race, desirability
An image norm that refer to images about a specific company or work
This theorist proposed that the process of choosing a career includes the development of a cognitive map of occupations that is integrated into an individual's self-concept... in other words, people must determine which occupations are compatible with how they see themselves.
Gottfredson describes this construct as the process by which young people eliminate alternatives that they feel would not be appropriate for them (don't match their self-concept)
Gottfredson describes this construct as the process by which people give up alternative career options they may like because others may be more accessible to them or they feel it may not be attainable for them..
cognitive map self-concept
Children living in France are exposed to information about similar occupations. All of the children in that area of France will develop the same ______________ of occupations. However, each child will develop their own unique ___________ that influences what career path they follow out of those occupations.
What theorist asserts that individuals are influenced by two factors as they grow - genes (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) and that both influence the development of a self-concept?
According to Piaget, what stage of cognitive development can adolescents begin to accurately picture themselves working in occupations?
A child says to their counselor, "Two years ago, I wanted to be a basketball player, but now I realize I will never be good enough." According to Super's developmental model, during what age-range do children begin to accurately asses their own abilities?
According to Super's developmental model, at what age range might a child begin to ask themselves about their values, such as, "Is it better to make money or to help others?"
According to Super's model, what is the name of the transition period in which reality conditions start to play an importan role in career choice. For example, during this stage, 17 or 18 year old students make decisions about whether to go to college, and if college is the choice, what to major in.
Derek has had trouble in college and has taken a break for a semester. He is currently working at a brewery because he has interests in the restaurant industry. According to Vondracek, what stage of vocational identity development is Derek at?
Jen is a high school senior who is currently focused on things like what is going on this weekend with her friends, prom in a couple of months, and vacations this summer. She'll work at Dairy Queen just like she did last summer and the one before. According to Vondracek, what stage of vocational identity development is Jen at?
Jon decides instead of going to college, he is going to join the family mechanic business with his dad. According to Vondracek, what stage of vocational identity is Jon at?
Amy was stressed for awhile about what she wanted to do with her life. Over the same, she worked with special needs kids at a camp. Now, she knows she wants to become a special ed teacher and will be taking special ed classes this fall. According to Vondracek, what stage of vocational identity is Amy at?