Chapter 1 Human Physiology

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Fundamentals of Human Physiology Stuart Ira Fox

Human Physiology

The scientific study of normal body functions

Pathophysiology

An alteration in normal body function due to disease or injury

Negative Feedback Loop

a type of negative feedback that maintains homeostasis by an opposing change

Positive Feedback Loop

a type of feedback loop that amplifies changes therefore does not maintain homeostasis

Protons

Positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom

Electrons

Negatively charged particles outside the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Mass

The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom

Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus

Nonpolar

Molecules formed by covalent bonds in which electrons are shared equally

Polar

Molecules formed by covalent bonds in which electrons are not shared equally

Hydrogen ions

The positively charged atoms that form when a molecule of water dissociates

Hydroxide ions

The negatively charged atoms that form when a molecule of water dissociates

Covalent

Bonds formed when atoms share their valence electrons

ionic

Bonds formed between atoms when one more more valence electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another

Anion

The negatively charged atom in an ionic bond
(Exp: chloride, bicarbonate or phosphate)

Cation

The positively charged atom in an ionic bond
(Exp: Sodium, Potassium, calcium & magnesium)

hydrophilic

Molecules that are polar and can dissolve in water

hydrophobic

Molecules that are nonpolar and cannot dissolve in water.

acid

A solution with a higher hydrogen ion concentration than water and a pH lower than 7

base

A solution with a lower hydrogen ion concentration than water and a pH greater than 7

acidosis

A condition in which blood pH is lower than the normal range

alkalosis

A condition in which blood pH is higher than the normal range

carbohydrate

An energy molecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1

lipid

An energy molecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in no specific ratio

disaccharide

Two monosaccharides joined together by a covalent bond

polysaccharide

many monosaccharides joined together by covalent bonds

hydrolysis

The type of chemical reaction that breaks down larger molecules into their smaller subunits

dehydration synthesis

The chemical reaction that builds a large molecule out of smaller subunits

fat

A lipid that is solid at room temperature because of its saturated fatty acids

oil

A lipid that is liquid at room temperature because of its unsaturated fatty acids

polypeptide

A chain of less than 100 amino acids formed by dehydration synthesis reactions

protein

A chain of more than 100 amino acids formed by dehydration synthesis reactions

guanine

The nitrogenous base that pairs with the nitrogenous base cytosine in a molecule of DNA

adenine

The nitrogenous base that pairs with the nitrogenous base thymine in a molecule of DNA

DNA

A double stranded nucleic acid

RNA

a single stranded nucleic acid

ribose

The 5-carbon sugar molecule in an RNA nucleotide

deoxyribose

The 5-carbon sugar molecule in a DNA nucleotide

Hydrogen Bond

The weakest Bond
Surface tension
Capillary action
Holds water molecules together
joins the 2 strands of DNA double helix
Forms between atoms in the human body

Covalent Bond

The strongest Bond
Shared electrons
Oxygen
Forms between atoms in the human body

Ionic Bond

NaCI
Forms between atoms in the human body

Carbohydrates

Polysaccharide
macromolecules
formed by dehydration synthesis

Proteins

Polypeptide
amino acid subunits
enzymes
primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary structure
macromolecules
formed by dehydration synthesis

Lipids

steroid hormones
formed by dehydration synthesis
macromolecules

nucleic acids

DNA
RNA
macromolecules
formed by dehydration synthesis

Glucose, galactose, and fructose all have the same chemical formula but differ in the way their atoms are put together making them this:

Structural Isomers

It's CnH2nOn

Carbohydrate

It's the simplest subcategory of carbohydrates as it can't be broken down any smaller and still be called a carbohydrate:

Monosaccharide

It's a bond formed between two amino acids by the dehydration synthesis reaction.

Peptide Bond

It's a weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and an atom of nitrogen or oxygen.

Hydrogen Bond

They are four carbon long acidic molecules derived from fatty acids that circulate in the blood to provide energy, although a high level in the blood is dangerous.

Ketone bodies

Each enzyme protein has a specific one making it very specific for the reaction it catalyzes.

Tertiary structure

It's a lipid that is non polar by definition although part of the molecule is actually polar.

phosopholipid

Effectors that act through negative feedback loops but have opposing effects such as shivering and sweating are this:

antagonistic

These electrons are in the outermost shell and participate in chemical reactions

valence

This level of protein structure is coded by the genes in DNA

primary

It's a nitrogenous base found in RNA but not DNA

Uracil

An unsaturated fatty acid has them and a saturated fatty acid lacks them:

Double Bonds

It contains the protons and neutrons of an atom

nucleus

It's the most abundant molecule in the body

Water

It's when a sensor is activated by deviation from a set point and an effector responds to oppose the deviation to maintain homeostasis.

Negative Feedback Loop

It's the mental model of enzyme function

Lock and Key

It's the study of normal biological function

Physiology

A molecule that contains the element carbon and generally bonds to hydrogen and oxygen is this kind of molecule.

organic

It's the dynamic constancy of the internal environment

Homeostasis

It's the key to the specific functions of a protein.

shape

It's a single molecule composed of three molecules of fatty acids bonded to one molecule of glycerol.

Triglyceride

It's a monosaccharide that serves as blood sugar and is required by the brain for energy.

Glucose

They are specific pockets in an enzyme's shape that will fit the substrates of a reaction.

Active sites

It's a lipid molecule that has a structure of three 6-carbon rings and one 5-carbon ring

steroid

The different isotopes of a particular atom constitutes this:

Chemical Element

It's the most important ionic compound in physiology

Salt

It's a molecule that has an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.

Amino Acid

It's a permanent change in a protein's tertiary structure due to changes in pH and hear that renders the protein non-functional.

denaturation

Some of them include collagen, enzymes, antibodies, receptors, transport carriers and hemoglobin.

proteins

Water can dissolve salt by forming these around Na+ and CI-

Hydration Spheres

Lecithen is a phospholipid with this bonded to its phosphate group:

choline

A solution that has a pH=7 is this:

Neutral

It's the parent molecule for steroid hormones.

Cholesterol

It's an atom of an element that has the same atomic number of other atoms of the same element but a different atomic mass.

isotope

It's the smallest unit of the chemical elements.

atom

It's a polysaccharide (aka animal starch) that serves as an energy storage molecule:

Glycogen

They are proteins that function as catalysts.

enzymes

It's one of the secondary structures of proteins.

Alpha helix

It's one of the elements that has only one electron shell

hydrogen

They are the subunits of nucleic acids

nucleotides

It's the effector in the negative feedback control of blood pressure

Heart

It's an electrically charged atom

ion

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