← ch. 18 Test
5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Prolonged exercise
- Pineal Body
- Beta endorphins
- Hormonal regulation soon after a meal
- a Blood glucose levels, including amino acids and fatty acids, increase. Taken up into cells.. Parasympathetic stimulation and increasing blood glucose levels cause increased insulin secretion from pancreas. Nutrients move into cells.
- b Anterior Pituitary. Play a role in analgesia in response to stress and exercise. Regulation of body temp, food intake, and water balance. Increase in response to stress and exercise.
- c In epithalamus. Produces Melatonin- enhances sleep, immune response. and Arginine Vasotocin- regulates function of reproductive system in some animals
- d Zona fasciculata, Cortisol is major hormone that increases fat and protein breakdown, increases glucose synthesis, anti-inflammatory response (cortosone shot!)
- e Both GH and cortisol secretion increase. Blood glucose levels maintained!
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Pancreas. Secreted by Beta cells. Target tissues: liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and satiety center of hypothalamus. Increases uptake of glucose and amino acids by cells. (in order to decrease blood glucose levels!)
- an extension of the nervous system and is called the neurohypophysis, continuous with the brain, secretes neurohormones
- called the Adenohypophysis, consists of three areas with indistinct boundaries (pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis)
- Decreased metabolic rate, Weight gain, reduced appetite, Dry and cold skin, Weak, flabby skeletal muscles, sluggish, Myxedema, Apathetic, somnolent, Coarse hair, rough dry skin, Decreased iodide uptake, Possible goiter, Cretinism
- Posterior Pituitary. Also called vasopressin, promotes water retention by kidneys. Secretion rate changes in response to alterations in blood osmolality and blood volume. Lack of ADH secretion is a cause of diabetes insipidus
5 True/False Questions
Thyroid hormones → Include Triiodothryronine or T3 and Tetraiodothyronine or T4 or thyroxine. Transported in blood. Bind with intracellular receptor molecules and initiate new protein synthesis. Increase rate of glucose, fat, protein metabolism in many tissues thus increasing body temperature. Normal growth of many tissues dependent on thyroid hormones. Calcitonin from parafollicular cells reduces blood calcium levels
Growth Hormone (GH) → Anterior Pituitary. Stimulates uptake of amino acids and conversion into proteins. Stimulates breakdown of fats and glycogen. Promotes bone and cartilage growth. Increased secretion in response to increase in amino acids, low blood glucose, or stress. Regulated by GHRH and GHIH or somatostatin
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) → Include Triiodothryronine or T3 and Tetraiodothyronine or T4 or thyroxine. Transported in blood. Bind with intracellular receptor molecules and initiate new protein synthesis. Increase rate of glucose, fat, protein metabolism in many tissues thus increasing body temperature. Normal growth of many tissues dependent on thyroid hormones. Calcitonin from parafollicular cells reduces blood calcium levels
Adrenal Glands → Also called the suprarenal glands. Functions as part of sympathetic nervous system. Composed of medulla and cortex (3 layers- zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis). Hormones- Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens
Thymosin → Posterior Pitutitary. Associated with pregnancy and birth. Promotes uterine contractions during delivery. Causes milk ejection in lactating women by stimulating smooth muscle-like cells associated with the alveoli of mammary glands. Also associated with the contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus during menses and sexual intercourse. Stretch of the uterus, mechanical stimulation of the cervix, and stimulation of the breast nipples as in nursing stimulates oxytocin secretion. Not much is known about the effects of oxytocin in males