Physical Science Honors Periodic Table

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Rows

called periods (periodic table)

Columns

Called families (periodic table)

Dmitri Mendeleev, Lothar Meyer

independently published periodic table of the elements in 1868

Based on increasing atomic weights and arranged so elements with similar properties were in the same column.

How the was the periodic table arranged?

undiscovered elements

What were the left over spaces for?

Henry Moseley

Rearranged the periodic table in order of atomic number; determined the number of positive charges in the nucleus - became the concept of atomic number

Symbol

A one or two letter abbreviation derived from the element's English or Latin name

Name

located right below symbol

Mass number

the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in a specific isotope

Atomic number

Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus, as well as the number of electrons in the electron cloud

Atomic Mass

Weighted average of the masses of all the element's isotopes. Rounding the atomic mass to the nearest whole number yields the mass number of the most common isotope

Bohr Diagram

Similar to Bohr's model where the electrons orbit around the nucleus in circular orbits.

look at the atomic number

How do you find the number of electrons in a Bohr Diagram?

2

How many electrons can be held in the 1st energy level?

8

How many electrons can be held in the 2nd energy level?

18

How many electrons can be held in the 3rd energy level?

Valence Electrons

in the outermost energy level

Dot diagram

a model of an atom that shows the chemical symbol and number of valence electrons only

Rows

represent the number of energy levels (on periodic table)

Columns

represent the number of valence electrons (on periodic table)

Physical Property of Metals

Luster (shininess)

Physical Properties of Metals

Good conductors of heat and electricity

Physical Properties of Metals and Metalloids

Ductile (can be drawn into thin wires)

Physical Properties of Metals and Metalloids

Malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets)

Chemical Properties of Metals

Easily Lose electrons

Chemical Properties of Metals

Corrode Easily. Corrosion is a gradual reaction with substances in the air. It results in the loss of the element.

Physical Properties of Nonmetals

No Luster (dull)

Physical Properties of Nonmetals

Poor conductor of heat and electricity

Physical Properties of Nonmetals

Brittle (breaks easily)

Physical Properties of Nonmetals

Not Ductile

Physical Properties of Nonmetals

Not malleable

Chemical Properties of Nonmetals

Tend to gain electrons

Metalloids

Elements on both sides of the zigzag line have properties of both metals and nonmetals

Physical Properties of Metalloids

Solids

Physical Properties of Metalloids

Can be shiny or dull

Physical Properties of Metalloids

Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals

Alkali Metals

1st Column of periodic table; Extremely reactive solids - never found uncombined in nature , must be stored under oil to keep them from reacting with the air; 1 valence electron

Alkaline Earth Metals

2nd column of the periodic table; slightly less active than Alkali Metals - still highly reactive; Like the Alkali Metals most need to be stored under oil; not found free in nature; 2 valence electrons

Transition Elements

Middle block; Properties are similar to one another and other metals, but different from other elements; form brightly colored compounds used in paint and ceramic glaze pigments; valance electrons vary but most have 1-3

Halogens

Highly reactive; Chlorine and fluorine are gases; bromine is a liquid; iodine and astatine are solids; iodine undergoes sublimation from a solid to a gas; 7 valence electrons

Noble Gases

Non-reactive; all are gases and are found in small amounts in the atmosphere; 8 valence electrons (Helium has 2)

Ianthanoids

Shiny and silvery-white; tarnish easily when exposed to air; react violently with most nonmetals; relatively soft; located at the bottom of the table

Actinoids

All elements past Uranium (92) are synthetic - made in a lab; Most are radioactive - unstable nuclei

Carbon

nonmetal; exists in several forms: graphite, diamond, Buckyballs - based on the arrangements of its atoms; also contained in most of the molecules needed for life; 4 valence electrons

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