Ch 5 Microbial Metabolism

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microbial metabolism

a collection of controlled biochemical reactions that take place within cells of an organism; the ultimate function is to reproduce the organism

ultimate function of metabolism

reproduce the organism; end goal

first

the ______ step of metabolism is active and passive transport of nutrients int the cell

enzymes

______ areabsolutely necessary in metabolism (catabolic and anabolic reactions)

nutrients

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
1. Every cell acquires _____

energy

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
2. Metabolism requires ______ from light or from catabolism of nutrients

ATP

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
3. Energy is stored in adenosie triphosphte (abbrev = _ _ _)

enzyme

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
4. Using _____s, cells catabolize nutrients to form precursor metabolites (elementary building blocks)

anabolic

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
5. Preursor metaboltes, energy from ATP, and enzymes are used in __________ reactions.

macromolecule

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
6. Enzymes + ATP form __________s (polymerization)

assembling

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
7. Cells grow by ________ (-ing) macromolecules into cellular structus

reproduce

one of the 8 elementary statements of metabolic proceses;
8. Cells _______ once they ha doubled in size

nonfastidious

when a microorganism is fast-growing because they can synthesize some of their own nutrients

catabolic pathway

a series of reactions that lead to the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller products; is an exergonic process;

a bond must be destabilized before it will break

anabolic pathway

a series of reactions that synthesize large molecules from the smaller products of catabolism and/or from nutrients that have been directly taken up by the cell; is an endergonic process

reactants must collide with sufficient energy before bonds will form between atoms (incr in temp or concentration of reactants will increase number of collisions)

exergonic

process by which energy is released; describes catabolic pathways; and small precursor molecules are generated (molecular building blocks); cells can store energy in ATP molecules

example: breakdown of lipids into glycerol and fatty acids

endergonic

process that requires energy; describes anabolic pathways; synthesis of macromolecules and cell structures, ATP is used for energy

example: synthesis of lipids from glycerol and fatty acids

redox reaction

type of reaction; transfer of electrons from the e- donor molecule to the e- acceptor; these reactions are always coupled

oxidation

stripping e- from a molecule

reduction

adding an e- to a molecule (more electronegative so is reduced)

electron carriers

molecules used by cells to carry electrons because electrons cannot exist freely in the cytoplasm, they orbit atomic nuclei

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; one of three important e- carriers
turns to NADH

NADP+

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotde phosphate; one of three important e- carriers
turns to NADPH

FAD

flavine adenine diucleotide; one of three important e- carriers
turns to FADH2

energy

organisms release _____ from nutrient; can be *concentrated and stored in high-energy phosphate bonds of ATP

phosphorylation

how ATP is made; process by which inorganic phosphate is added to substrate; cells phosphorylate ADP to ATP in three ways: 1. substrate-level phosphorylation 2. oxidative phosphorylation 3. photophosphorylation

chemical bonds

The Roles of Enzymes in Metabolism; Reactions occur when _____ _____s are broken or formed between atoms

catalysts

molecules that speed up a reaction; in living organisms, the chemical reaction of life depends on these, because neither reactant concentration nor temperature is high enough to ensure that bonds will form

enzymes

organic catalysts - they increase the likelihood of a reaction but are not permanently changed; six categories of these

hydrolases

one of six categories of enzymes; catabolize molecules; hydrolysis -> catabolic

why ATP is made

"why ATP is made" ; nutrients contain energy, but that energy is spread throughout their chemical bonds/generally is not concentrated enough for use in anabolic reactions
catabolism and then phosphorylation creates high-energy phosphate bonds of molecules such as ATP

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