Zimmermann Note (1917)
Secret German message to Mexico (intercepted by the US) which offered to return to Mexico the lands it lost in the Mexican-American War.
Fourteen Points (1918)
A list of foreign policy goals which Woodrow Wilson hoped to achieve in the aftermath of World War I
Committee on Public Info
Established by Woodrow Wilson and headed by George Creel, this was the Federal group that worked on producing and distributing pro-war propaganda to the US people.
Head of the Committee on Public Info, this man used many techniques to persuade the public to support the war.
Derogatory term used to describe the 'barbaric' Central Powers as seen by the US people.
Espionage Act (1917)
Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during World War 1
Sedition Act (1918)
Added to Espionage Act, this act deemed "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces as criminal and worthy of prosecution-- the reason why Eugene V. Debs was imprisoned.
Schenck v. United States (1919)
A legal case in which it was ruled that government can limit free speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
A Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production.
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
Leader of the AF of L for almost his entire life, this man was very outspoken in favor of the war.
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
A union of many labor unions into one, this establishment accomplished much for its members. Loyally supported the Great War.
IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
A labor union for industrial laborers, this group performed many acts of industrial sabotage in pursuit of its goals. Openly opposed the Great War.
Steel Strike of 1919
A work stoppage that began when some 365,000 steelworkers in Pennsylvania walked off the job to demand recognition of their union, higher wages, and shorter hours.
Chicago Race Riot (1919)
Major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3. Resulted in some white deaths and many black deaths.
National Woman's Party
Was formed in 1916. A more militant approach to gaining votes by some women. Took to streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes. Their leader was Alice Paul.
Woman's suffrage leader who helped form the National Woman's Party. Organized many walks and rallies.
NAWSA (National American Women's Suffrage Association)
Created in 1890 when the two leading suffragist organizations united and settled their differences. Led by Carrie Chapman Catt, this organization supported the War, saying that woman should do their part to ensure peace.
(Carrie Chapman) Catt
Leader of the National American Woman's Suffrage Association. Fought passionately for suffrage.
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and to ration food for the military.
Later elected president of the United States, this Quaker-humanitarian was the head of the Food Administration and attained an amazingly positive reputation all over the world for his help in feeding the hungry.
A general term, but specifically referring to the American spirit of noncompulsory personal contribution to the war effort during World War I. Examples of this include "wheatless Wednesdays", "meatless Tuesdays", and "Victory Gardens".
Private gardens which American citizens were encouraged to create as a source of food during the war period.
Government bonds sold to gain money for World War I
Selective Service Act (1917)
This Act required all men between 21-30 years to register for the military. Each received a number, and draftees were chosen like a lottery. In contrast to the Union's civil war conscription, there was no way for men to "opt out" of this draft.
The revolution that overthrew Czar Nicholas I in 1917. Later established a socialist government under Vladimir Lenin.
An allied invasion of northern Russia (after Russia pulled out of the war), the purpose of which was to prevent German seizure of munitions there. Named for the location where Americans landed.
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI
Warfare waged using toxic airborne weapons (eg. Mustard Gas) that caused blindness, skin blisters, and choking to death
The primary form of combat used in World War I. Led to a horrendously large amount of bloodshed, as it resulted in stalemates which could only be resolved through dangerous charges across wide open areas. Created "no man's land".
Ended the bloodshed of World War 1 (signed in the eleventh minute of the eleventh hour of the eleventh day etc.)
(Henry Cabot) Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations. He led the "reservationists" in Congress.
Name given to the four most important leaders in the post-World-War-I world: Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (French premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister)
Paris Peace Conference
Conference in which negotiations over the fate of Central Powers took place
League of Nations
The precursor to the United Nations, this was a proposed union of the world powers after World War I; the brainchild of Wilson, who fought tooth-and-nail for its passage.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.
The intense debate over the American acceptance of the Treaty of Versailles.
People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs; opposed the League of Nations; opposite of internationalists
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without amendments.
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
People who thought the US should try to preserve peace in the world; opposite of isolationists
Election of 1920
Election; dominated by the aftermath of WWI and the hostile reaction to Wilson; Democrats tried to make it into a referendum of League of Nations, but were foiled by Harding's ambiguous rhetoric. Warren G. Harding (Repub.) won against Cox (Dem.).
(Warren G.) Harding
29th U.S. President. 1921-1923 (Died of natural causes). Republican. Called for a return to normalcy.