Sensation Midterm

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Which of the following is an application of perception research?

a. Treating hearing problems.
b. All of these.
c. Developing speech recognition systems.
d. Devising robots that can "see."

All of these.

The study of perception can overlap with:

a. philosophy.
b. computer science.
c. all of these.
d. medicine.

all of these.

The step of the perceptual process that is analogous to the cell phone signals is:

a. neural processing.
b. knowledge.
c. action.
d. attention.

neural processing.

Which of the following best describes the steps of the perceptual process?

a. The steps are unidirectional, starting at the environmental stimulus and ending at knowledge.
b. The sequence of steps is dynamic and constantly changing.
c. The steps are unidirectional, starting at the environmental stimulus and ending at perception.
d. The steps are unidirectional, starting at transduction and ending at recognition.

The sequence of steps is dynamic and constantly changing.

Kimmy is casting shadows on the wall and watching whether her cat Tiger jumps at the shadows or not. She uses different hand motions to see if there is a difference in whether Tiger jumps or not. Kimmy is informally studying which relationship?

a. all of these
b. the stimulus-perception relationship
c. the stimulus-physiology relationship
d. the physiology-perception relationship

the stimulus-perception relationship

Trying to read a note written by someone with poor handwriting involves:

a. only top-down processing.
b. both top-down and bottom-up processing.
c. only data-based processing.
d. only bottom-up processing.

both top-down and bottom-up processing.

Which of the following methods are used to measure the quantitative relationship between the stimulus and perception?

a. the phenomenological method
b. classical psychophysical methods
c. description
d. recognition

classical psychophysical methods

Using Weber's Law, if the DL for a 100 gram weight standard is 2 grams, then the DL when using a 200 gram standard would be ________ grams.

a. 2
b. 50
c. 0.02
d. 4

4

The difference between the method of limits and the method of adjustment is that, in the method of adjustment, stimulus intensity is changed in a ________ manner.

a. bivariate
b. continuous
c. stepwise
d. discrete

continuous

Stevens's Power Law:

a. accurately describes audition and vision, but not the skin senses.
b. is valid, but not reliable.
c. can describe the relationship between the stimulus and the perceived magnitude in all senses.
d. accurately describes vision, but not any other modality.

can describe the relationship between the stimulus and the perceived magnitude in all senses.

Our perception of the environment depends on:

a. both the properties of the environmental objects and properties of the electrical signals in the nervous system.
b. the properties of the objects in the environment.
c. the properties of the electrical signals in the nervous system.
d. None of these are true.

both the properties of the environmental objects and properties of the electrical signals in the nervous system.

________ authored the first major book on the study of the brain.

a. Descartes
b. Galen
c. Willis
d. Arnold

Willis

The analogy of listening to a speech in a crowded convention center is used in the textbook to explain the importance of:

a. recording from single neurons.
b. recording electrical activity in the ventricles.
c. studying the pineal gland's role in perception.
d. using lesioning as a technique for studying brain function.

recording from single neurons.

The flow of ions that create the action potential are caused by the changes in the ________ of the nerve fiber.

a. assimilation
b. suppression
c. accommodation
d. permeability

permeability

The ________ analogy is used to describe the relationship of neurotransmitters with receptor sites.

a. "needle in a haystack"
b. "rolling stone"
c. "stadium wave"
d. "lock and key"

"lock and key"

In a neural circuit with convergence that only involves excitatory synapses, the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron ________ as the number of receptors stimulated increases.

a. does not change
b. increases or decreases, depending on the receptor stimulated
c. decreases
d. increases

increases

A neuron with an excitatory center-inhibitory surround receptive field will respond most when we stimulate:

a. only the center.
b. part of the surround.
c. both the center and surround together.
d. only the surround.

only the center.

"Grandmother cells" are mostly closely associated with ________ coding.

a. olfactory
b. specificity
c. distributed
d. invasive

specificity

A neuron studied by Quiroga et al. responded to:

a. the words "Halle Berry" visually presented.
b. All of these caused the cell to fire.
c. a photograph of Halle Berry's face.
d. a photograph of Halle Berry dressed as Catwoman.

All of these caused the cell to fire.

"How do physiological responses transform into perceptual experiences?" summarizes the:

a. easy problem of consciousness.
b. NCC-1701 lettering problem.
c. hard problem of consciousness.
d. NC state problem.

hard problem of consciousness.

Jan tries to focus on the tip of her pencil as she brings it closer to her. She feels the strain on her eye as she does this. What she is feeling in her eye is due to the process called:

a. reflection.
b. accommodation.
c. inhibition.
d. assimilation.

accommodation.

LASIK surgery is used to treat ________ by cutting a small flap in the ________.

a. myopia; cornea
b. presbyopia; lens
c. myopia; lens
d. hyperopia; cornea

myopia; cornea

Vera has hyperopia, and tends to get headaches when she reads. This is because:

a. Vera is 5-years-old, and has just learned to read.
b. Vera is 80-years-old, and also has presbyopia.
c. Vera is 17-years-old, and has attention problems.
d. Vera is 25-years-old, and has just had LASIK surgery.

Vera is 80-years-old, and also has presbyopia.

The Hecht et al. (1942) study is important because:

a. it was the first study to use microelectrodes to measure activity in an individual neuron.
b. the results provide a counterexample to the evolutionary theory of color vision.
c. it demonstrates that a psychophysical study can provide information about physiological processes.
d. the results showed that 20 pigment molecules must be isomerized for a rod receptor to be excited.

it demonstrates that a psychophysical study can provide information about physiological processes.

Nina does a demonstration of "seeing" the blind spot, in which a grid pattern surrounds the black dot that disappears when it falls on the blind spot. What does Nina most likely see in the area where the dot disappears?

a. a continuation of the grid pattern
b. a white circle
c. a blurry gray area
d. nothing

a continuation of the grid pattern

The episode of "Mythbusters" cited in the textbook demonstrated that dark adaptation was the reason why:

a. giants have poor night vision.
b. cardinals have good night vision.
c. pirates wore eyepatches.
d. poker players wear sunglasses.

pirates wore eyepatches.

The Purkinje shift:

a. is when details that are easily seen in well-lit conditions become more difficult to see in low-light conditions.
b. is when blues appear brighter than reds in well-lit conditions, but blues appear brighter than reds in dim conditions.
c. demonstrates the importance of eye movements in visual pigment regeneration.
d. is when reds appear brighter than blues in well-lit conditions, but blues appear brighter than reds in dim conditions.

is when reds appear brighter than blues in well-lit conditions, but blues appear brighter than reds in dim conditions.

In Hermann's grid, gray areas appear at the intersections because:

a. the amount of inhibition right at the intersections is much less than the inhibition between each square.
b. the superior colliculus responds maximally as you move your eye from intersection to intersection.
c. moving the eye creates a blur at all the intersections.
d. the amount of inhibition right at the intersections is twice as great as the inhibition between each square.

the amount of inhibition right at the intersections is twice as great as the inhibition between each square.

You can create a version of the ________ by illuminating a light-colored surface with a desk lamp and casting a shadow with a piece of paper.

a. Mach bands
b. Hermann Grid
c. illusory square
d. Benary Cross

Mach bands

White's illusion is an example of a perceptual effect that can be explained by the principle of:

a. convergence.
b. belongingness.
c. spatial summation.
d. lateral inhibition.

belongingness.

Chad is reading when he sees an insect land on the corner of his book. He then makes an eye movement to look at the insect. The structure of the visual system that is most likely responsible for making this eye movement is:

a. the extrastriate cortex.
b. the optic chiasm.
c. the superior colliculus.
d. the parietal cortex.

the superior colliculus.

The flow of information in the LGN is best described as:

a. bi-directional, with signals coming from the retina and the cortex to the LGN.
b. unidirectional, with signals going from the LGN to the cortex.
c. unidirectional, with signals going from the LGN to the retina.
d. unidirectional, with signals going from the retina to the LGN.

bi-directional, with signals coming from the retina and the cortex to the LGN.

Graphing the response of a simple cortical cell results in the:

a. response expansion curve.
b. orientation tuning curve.
c. motion-directive sensitivity function.
d. response compression curve.

orientation tuning curve.

When you stare at a grating of wide bars for 55 seconds, then look at a grating with narrow bars, the narrow bars will:

a. seem to be thinner than they actually are.
b. be unaffected by the adaptation period.
c. seem to be wider that they actually are.
d. seem to change orientation.

seem to be thinner than they actually are.

When a kitten is exposed to an environment of just horizontal lines, the kitten:

a. would pay attention only to vertical lines.
b. would have cortical cells that respond to horizontal lines, but none to vertical lines.
c. would pay attention only to horizontal lines.
d. would have cortical cells that only respond to vertical lines.

would have cortical cells that respond to horizontal lines, but none to vertical lines.

The arrangement of ocular dominance columns in the cortex is the:

a. grouping of 5 columns for the left eye adjacent to the grouping of 5 columns for the right eye.
b. alternating between left eye and right eye.
c. concentric areas, with the center columns for the left eye, and the surrounding columns for the right eye.
d. grouping of 4 columns for the left eye adjacent to the grouping of 8 columns for the right eye.

alternating between left eye and right eye.

Object discrimination problem: ________. Landmark discrimination problem :________.

a. temporal lobes; parietal lobes
b. parietal lobes; occipital lobes
c. LGN; thalamus
d. parietal lobes; temporal lobes

temporal lobes; parietal lobes

The tilted frame in the rod-and-frame test influenced the alignment of the rod in the ________ task(s).

a. neither matching nor grasping
b. matching
c. grasping
d. both matching and grasping

matching

An area in the ________ called the ________ is specialized to recognize faces.

a. parietal lobe; area 4H
b. parietal lobe; FFA
c. temporal lobe; FFA
d. occipital lobe; RBC

temporal lobe; FFA

After training participants on the recognition of "Greeble" stimuli, Gauthier et al. found that the neuron in the FFA responded:

a. weakly to Greebles, and decreased activity to human faces
b. as well to Greebles as to human faces.
c. weakly to Greebles, but strong activity to human faces.
d. unpredictably to Greebles, and inhibited activity for human faces.

as well to Greebles as to human faces.

The ________ problem shows that numerous physical stimuli can create exactly the same image on the retina.

a. Xeon-Darpa
b. occlusion
c. correspondence
d. inverse projection

inverse projection

Wundt: ________. Wertheimer: ________.

a. functionalism; structuralism
b. Gestalt psychology; structuralism
c. structuralism; Gestalt psychology
d. psychophysics; metaphysics

structuralism; Gestalt psychology

The Bev Doolittle print of "The Forest Has Eyes" exemplifies the Gestalt law of:
a. proximity.
b. meaningfulness.
c. common fate.
d. uniform connectedness.

meaningfulness.

Corey looks at a flock of seagulls flying in one direction, when suddenly five of the seagulls start flying in another direction. He now perceives two groups of birds, because of the Gestalt law of:

a. Pragnanz.
b. uniform connectedness.
c. common fate.
d. synchrony.

common fate.

Jada looks at a picture of a horse that was taken from directly above the horse, and has difficulty recognizing the horse. According to Biederman's RBC theory, this difficulty would be explained by:

a. the accidental viewpoint.
b. perspective convergence.
c. image-description modeling.
d. too many geons being present in the picture.

the accidental viewpoint.

The ________ effect is that humans perceive horizontals and verticals more easily than other orientations.

a. spreading
b. visual persistence
c. oblique
d. turing

oblique

Jimmy looks at a picture of a side of a submarine that has dents and bumps on it. When he turns the picture upside-down, what he originally perceived as bumps, now look like dents, and vice versa. This is due to the:

a. accidental properties of light.
b. oblique effect.
c. the "light-from-above" heuristic.
d. Pragnanz effect.

the "light-from-above" heuristic.

One of the reason that the robotic vehicles crashed (as described in the opening vignette) is because computers:

a. overused morphing programs in recognizing objects.
b. lacked the knowledge that humans have about object perception.
c. made use of the "likelihood" principle.
d. did not have enough illumination to "see" objects clearly.

lacked the knowledge that humans have about object perception.

Grill-Spector et al.'s (2004) "Harrison Ford" study showed that object recognition is associated with ________, and detection is associated with ________.

a. a high "Q"-rating; a low "Q"-rating
b. a low "Q"-rating; a high "Q"-rating
c. a large response from the FFA; a smaller response from the FFA
d. a small response from the FFA; a larger response from the FFA

a large response from the FFA; a smaller response from the FFA

Kamitani and Tong's "orientation decoder" was able to correctly predict what orientation a person was looking at on ________ of the trials.

a. 25%
b. 40%
c. 10%
d. 100%

100%

Vaco is playing basketball, and does a "no-look" pass to a teammate. This demonstrates the idea that attention:

a. is due to the functioning of the rods.
b. is solely the result of eye movements.
c. may not occur even if we are looking straight at an object.
d. can occur without directly looking at the object.

can occur without directly looking at the object.

Parkhurst et al. (2002) showed that observers make initial fixations in a visual scene based on:

a. stimulus saliency.
b. meaningfulness.
c. stimulus schema.
d. scotopic representations.

stimulus saliency.

In Reddy et al.'s (2007) "dual-task condition", which task was accurately done 90% of the time?

a. Identifying the gender of a face.
b. Indicating if a disc was red-green or green-red.
c. All of these had a 90% accuracy rate.
d. Identifying the Q-rating of the face.

Identifying the gender of a face.

Simons and Chabris showed a video of students passing a basketball, and asked participants to count how many passes made. In the video, a person in a gorilla suit walked through the basketball players for 5 seconds. Approximately how many of the participants reported seeing the "gorilla"?

a. 77
b. 100
c. 46
d. 90

46

In the "I'm a Believer" scene at the end of the movie "Shrek," the three blind mice are turned into the horses in one frame, but the next time we see them, they are dancing on a piano. This is an example of a ________, which is a "real-life" example of ________.

a. Type II error; illusory sequencing
b. contingency break; change blindness
c. continuity error; change blindness
d. Type I error; illusory contingency

continuity error; change blindness

The spreading enhancement effect of attention can help us perceive:

a. illusory conjunctions.
b. occluded objects.
c. grating stimuli.
d. the oblique effect.

occluded objects.

According to Treisman, focused attention binds the information from the ________ and the ________.

a. aqueous stream; vitreous stream
b. what stream; where stream
c. LGN pathway; superior colliculus pathway
d. peripheral retina; foveal retina

what stream; where stream

R.M., a patient with Balint's syndrome, reported illusory conjunctions:

a. only if the two stimuli were presented for less than 2 seconds.
b. if he was told to attend only to the first stimulus.
c. only if the two stimuli were presented for less than 1 second.
d. even if he was presented the two stimuli for 10 seconds.

even if he was presented the two stimuli for 10 seconds.

The synchrony hypothesis:

a. is a behavioral explanation for the "filling-in" process.
b. is a behavioral explanation to the binding problem.
c. is of historical importance, but is not considered valid by contemporary researchers.
d. is a physiological explanation to the binding problem.

is a physiological explanation to the binding problem.

Shelby watches the movie "Slumdog Millionaire." When Jamal is in the "hot seat" on the game show "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?," Shelby is looking at Jamal's eyes. Shelby is most likely:

a. asymmetrical.
b. non-autistic.
c. autistic.
d. apathetic.

non-autistic.

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