AP Human Geography Unit 5

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AGRICULTURE

The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.

SECOND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

Time when human beings first domesticated animals and plants and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.

SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.

VEGITATIVE PLANTING

Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.

SEED AGRICULTURE

Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which results from sexual fertilization.

COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.

SHIFTING CULTIVATION

A form of subsistance agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to the other; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.

CROP ROTATION

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to aviod exhausting the soil.

SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE

Another namec for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegitation and burning the debris.

SWIDDEN

A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.

INTENSIVE SUBSISTANCE AGRICULTURE

A form of subsistance agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.

PADDY FIELD

Field of paddy (wet rice)

DOUBLE CROPPING

Harvesting twice a year from the same field.

PASTORAL NOMADISM

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.

TRANSHUMANCE

The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and low land pastures.

GREEN REVOLUTION

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.

AGRIBUSINESS

Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations .

PLANTATION

A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.

TRUCK FARMING

Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because "truck" was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or the exchange of commodities

DESERTIFICATION

Degradition of land, especially in semiarid areas primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting animal grazing, and tree cutting.

HUNTING AND GATHERING

The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, nuts, and and other plants for sustenance

FIRST AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

The shuft from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis

INTERTILLAGE

In shifting cultivation, spreads out production over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field

PASTORALISM

A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter

BIOTECHNOLOGY

A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes

GENETICALLY-MODIFIED FOODS

Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a labratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictibility, and efficiency

VON THUNEN MODEL

A model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market

THIRD AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms

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