When was the Baroque period?
List some characteristics of the Baroque period.
excessive ornamentation, drama, contrasts, emotions
Where did Baroque spread first?
Where did Baroque spread second?
What were the 3 types of Patronage practiced in Italy?
public, private, and church
When did the first opera house open?
Where did the first opera house open?
Who was the main patron in France in the 17th century?
What is the definition of Baroque?
a term generally used to describe the art, architecture, and music of the period 1600-1750
Define Doctrine of Affections
doctrine where different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions, or affections, of the listeners
list the different affections
love, hate, joy, sorrow, wonder, and desire
Who was Rene Descartes?
wrote Passions of the Soul, analyzed and cataloged the affections
Who is Charles Le Brun?
was a painter who portrayed the passions, labeled emotions and their corresponding facial gestures
When was the Artusi-Monteverdi controversy?
What began the Artusi-Monteverdi controversy?
Artusi attacked Monteverdi for breaking many of the established rules of counterpoint
How did Monteverdi respond to Artusi?
by affirming that the text and its meaning were to be held above pure musical procedure
define prima practica
by Zarlino, counterpont rules could not be violated, dissonances had to be carefully controlled and restricted
define seconda practice
by Claudio Monteverdi, music had to serve the text
composition with an individual vocal line with accompaniment
list 3 examples of monody
solo madrigals, solo arias, and solo recitatives
list 2 characteristics of Baroque texture.
bass and melody polarity and basso continuo
define basso continuo
notated in figured bass
which instruments play in the basso continuo?
cello, bassoon, or viola da gamba
list 3 other categories of texture other than basso continuo
keyboard or plucked instruments, realization, and concertato medium/style
what did keyboard or plucked instruments play?
played both bass and chords
what was realization?
actual playing, improvised performance, written-out suggestions in modern editions, indicated by smaller notes
what was concertato medium/style?
combining voices with instruments
what are two examples (genres) of concertato medium/style?
concerted madrigals and the sacred concerto
what was the basic rhythm of the Baroque period?
free and measured
describe the basic harmony of the Baroque period.
more chords, major-minor tonalities, harmony drives counterpoint, dissonances more acceptable
describe concertato medium
voice with instruments, dramatic contrasts
describe performance practice
performer has power, freely added ornamentation, adding and deleting arias from operas, adding sections/cadenzas within arias, written music is just a guideline
union of versified play, drama, and music. continuous or near-continuous singing, staged
the text that conveys the story of the opera
where did the first opera appear?
in Florence, Italy
when did the first opera premiere?
list the 3 preceding genres of opera
intermedi, madrigal, pastoral drama
what did Girolamo Mei say about Greek tragedy as a model for opera?
he believed that all text was sung and concluded that Greek music consisted of a single melody sung by a soloist or a chorus with or without accompaniment
an instrumental refrain that follows each stanza
strophic form, tuneful and rhythmic
bass chords have no rhythmic profile, voice imitates the inflections and rhythms of poetic speech
When did Monteverdi's Orfeo premiere?
What was the significance of Monteverdi's Orfeo?
was the first work to show the full potential of opera
Who was the librettist of Orfeo?
Describe Monteverdi's Orfeo
the subject is the same as in L'Euridice, was in 5 acts, each centered around a song by Orfeo and ended with a chorus that comments on the situation
What was the most significant opera other than Monteverdi's Orfeo?
What is significant about Peri's L'Euridice?
It was the first real opera
Describe opera in Rome.
range of topics expanded from pastoral and mythological to epics, saints' lives, and comedy, stage effects were spectacular, recitative and aria became more clearly defined.
Who were the Castrato singers?
men who had been castrated before puberty who sang treble parts in church because women were not permitted to sing
Where were the Castrato singers from?
By 1678 how many stages were devoted to opera?
When were performances of opera in Venice?
during the carnival season
What was significant about class during the carnival season?
it was classless
What was the Libretto structure in Venice?
Why were stories for Librettos chosen in Venice?
for the dramatic content and opportunity for special effects
Who were the 2 main composers of opera in Venice?
Francesco Cavalli and Antonio Cesti
What four characteristics of opera remain standard for the next 200 years?
concentration on solo singing, separation of recitative and aria, use of varied styles, and singers and spectacles replaced drama as the focus of interest
describe concertato style in vocal chamber music
grand style and strong contrast
define Monteverdi's concerted madrigals
madrigals with instrumental accompaniment
What was the significance of the 7th and 8th books of concerted madrigals?
styles ranged from sixteenth-century madrigal style to stile concitato and operatic recitative
What was the name of the 7th book of concerted madrigals?
What was the name of the 8th book of concerted madrigals?
Madrigals of Love and War
define ostinato bass
persistent bass, aka ground bass, a bass line that insistently repeats, note for note
describe some common features of ostinato bass
triple or compound meter, two, four, or six measures long, often features a descending tetrachord
who were the 4 main composers of cantata?
Luigi Rossi, Antonio Cesti, Giacomo Carissimi, and Barbara Strozzi
describe the French air de cour
homophonic, stophic song, syllabic text-setting, distinctly French in character
define stile antico
style of polyphony that carried associations of tradition, reverence, and sanctity
whose style was exemplified in stile antico?
define Gradus ad Parnassum
treatise that codified the neo-Palestrina style of counterpoint of the time
who wrote the Gradus ad Parnassum?
Johann Joseph Fux
What composer is mainly associated with large-scale sacred concerto?
Who wrote In ecclesiis?
What was In ecclesiis?
polychoral motets for St. Mark's in Venice
define small sacred concerto
concerto for solo singer with organ and often one or two violins
Who wrote the Cento concerti ecclesiastici?
What was the significance of the Cento concerti ecclesiastici?
it was the first book of church music to use basso continuo
What composer other than Lodovico Viadana should be associated with small-scale sacred concerto?
Who did Alessadro Grandi work for?
What did Alessandro Grandi mainly compose?
solo motets using monody
religious dramatic music incorporating narrative, dialogue, and commentary that is not staged
Where did oratorio develop?
When did oratorio develop?
What are 3 differences between oratorio and opera?
oratorio is almost never staged, uses a narrator, and the chorus had a different role and function
Who was the leading composer of Latin oratorio in the 17th century?
Who else other than the Catholics adopted concertato medium and monody?
describe the Lutheran sacred concerto
both large and small scale were composed
Who is the most important Lutheran composer of this time?
How did the 30 Years War influence Heinrich Schutz's work?
his work reflected the mood of these troubled times, economic hardship reduced the number of musicians at the Dresden Chapel, and delayed the publication of his Small Sacred Concerto collection
What was a key musical figure of Lutheran Baroque music?
counterpoint patterns became associated with specific emotions
a musical setting based on a biblical narrative
settings of the story of Jesus' crucifixion, most common type of historia
Who was the most important composer of Passions?
What denomination were Passions associated with?
What are 4 influences of vocal music on instrumental music?
interest in moving the affections, focus on the soloist and virtuosic embellishment, styles such as recit and aria, and violin music imitation of the voice
one of the most important type keyboard works
Who was the most important composer of toccatas?
Who studied under Girolamo Grescobaldi?
Johann Jacob Froberger
serious composition for organ or harpsichord, using one subject or theme in continuously developed imitation
German term for serious pieces that treat one theme in continuous imitation
define sonata and canzona
broad instrumentation and contrasting sections
What was the importance of Louis XIV for French Baroque music?
played roles designed to reinforce his identity as the Sun King, employed 200 musicians in 3 divisions, insisted that dance be prominent within opera
describe court ballet in France
musical-dramatic work, with several acts, staged with costumes and scenery
What was the main feature in rhythm of the court ballet?
What did Jean-Baptiste Lully write?
15 operas, 14 comedie-ballets, 29 ballets, and liturgical music
What were some influences of French opera?
French audiences would not accept sung dialogue, so Lully blended ballet and opera
What became the French version of opera?
Tragedie en musique
describe the libretto of Tragedie en musique
5 acts, plots came from mythology, a lot of spectacle, and prologues that praised the king
describe the French overture from Armide
came from ballet tradition, first secton is slow and stately but the second is faster with some fugal imitation
dances with unrelated material that appeared at the center or end of every act
Who was one of the most important composers of French air de cour?
What was significant about Marc-Antoine Charpentier's air de cours?
combined Italian lyricism wtih French-style embellishments
define petit motet
sacred concerto for few voices with continuo
define grand motet
multisection works corresponding to the large-scale concertos
Who were the main composers of petit, grand motets, and oratorios?
Lully and Charpentier
Who was Denis Gaultier?
the leading composer in lute music, published 2 instructional collections amateurs
define style brise
habit of breaking up melodies into arpeggiated texture in harpsichord
a French ornament, sometimes notated unlike in Italian works
grouped dance movements
what is the order of the 5 french suites?
prelude, allamande, courante, sarabande, gigue
What was Oliver Cromwell's influence on music in England?
prohibited stage plays, so the addition of masque elements to spoken drama created a mixed genre that was allowable
What was the favorite genre under Henry VII in England?
an elaborate courtly entertainment using music, dance, and drama to portray an allegorical story that often celebrated the royal family
a spoken play in which the more exotic, amorous, and supernatural moments in the plot were sung or danced
Who was the most important English composer of the 17th century?
What was Henry Purcell's only fully sung opera?
Dido and Aeneas
What was the first opera produced in the New World?
La purpura de la rosa
What was the Florentine Camerata?
a circle of prominent Florentines gathered to discuss literature, arts, and science in the home of Count Giovanni Bardi
Who were 2 important members of the Florentine Camerata?
Vincenco Gallilei and Gulio Caccini
Who wrote le nuove musiche?
What was the significance of le nuove musiche?
describes vocal ornaments and their use