MicroBiology Test 1

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Microbiology

1- Specialized area of biology that deals with living things that are too small to be seen w/o magnification is called

Genetic engineering

When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, the process is called

Decomposers

1- The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called

Introduction of microbes to environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants

1- Bioremediation means

A. A yeast

1- Which microbe is extensively used in our food industry?

B. 4

1- The first prokaryotes appeared about ___ billion years ago.

Pathogens

1- Disease-causing microorganisms are called

Parasitic worms

1- Helminths are

Belief in a preconceived idea

1- Which of the following is NOT a process in the scientific method?A. Belief in a preconceived idea
B. Formulate a hypothesis
C. Systematic observation
D. Laboratory experimentation
E. Conclusion supporting or refuting hypothesis

Kingdom

Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?A. Species
B. Phylum
C. Kingdom
D. Genus
E. Family

Electrons

The subatomic particles that surround the nucleus are the

E. All of the above are nucleotides

Which of the following is not a nucleotideA. Uracil
B. Adenine
C. Thymine
D. Cytosine
E. All of the above are nucleotides

Result from sharing electrons

Covalent bonds

Has more H+ ions

A solution of pH 7 compared to a solution of pH 9

Petri dish

Which of the following is not an inoculating tool?
A. Petri dish
B. Loop
C. Pipette
D. Swab
E. Pipette aid

The culture medium must be selective

A microbiologist inoculates 2 different bacteria into a culture medium. Following incubation, only one of them grows in the culture. What is the most likely explanation?
A. The microbiologist used too much inoculum
B. The culture is contaminated
C. The incubation temperature was incorrect
D. The culture medium must be selective
E. The culture medium must be differential

B. False

The object of microscopy is just to increase magnification.
A. True
B. False

2

Disaccharides are those sugars consist of _____ sugar molecules.

Increase contrast

The purpose of staining cells on a microscope slide is to

All of the above are characteristics of prokaryotes

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a prokaryote?
A. DNA is not encased in a membrane
B. Cell wall is made of peptidoglycans and other distinct chemicals
C. No membrane-bound organelles
D. None of the above
E. All of the above are characteristics of prokaryotes

true

One example of bacteria that are able to produce endospores are Bacillus.
A. True
B. False

cell wall

The basal body of a flagellum is anchored into the

pili

The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called

Peptidoglycan

_____ is a macromolecule containing alternating NAG and NAM cross-linked by short peptide fragments.

gram negative bacteria

Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of

protein synthesis would stop

The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosomes would be

Plasmids - necessary genes for bacterial survival

Which of the following is mismatched?
A. Ribosomes - protein synthesis
B. Inclusions - excess cell nutrients and materials
C. Plasmids - necessary genes for bacterial survival
D. Nucleoid - hereditary material
E. Cytoplasm - dense, gelatinous solution

Algae and protozoa

Protists include

Golgi apparatus

An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membranous sacs and functions to receive, modify and package proteins for cell secretion is the

lysosome

A vesicle that contains a variety of enzymes for intracellular digestion.

Chloroplasts

Which organelle is found in algae but not found in protozoa or fungi?
A. Mitochondria
B. Lysosomes
C. Golgi apparatus
D. Chloroplasts
E. Endoplasmic reticulum

80S

The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is

Metabolism

Viruses have all the following except
A. Definite shape
B. Metabolism
C. Genes
D. Ability to infect host cells
E. Ultramicroscopic size

Capsid

Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus

Viral DNA from RNA

Reverse transcriptase synthesizes

Positive, Negative

Viruses with _____ sense RNA contain the correct message for translation, while viruses with _____ sense RNA must first be converted into a correct message.
A. Positive, negative
B. Negative, positive
C. Primary, secondary
D. Secondary, primary
E. None of the choices are correct

Nuclieus, Cytoplasms

In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____.
A. Nucleus, cytoplasm
B. Cytoplasm, cell membrane
C. Cell membrane, cytoplasm
D. Cytoplasm, nucleus
E. Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum

Oncoviruses

Mammalian viruses capable of starting tumors are
A. Chronic latent viruses
B. Oncoviruses
C. Syncytia
D. Inclusion bodies
E. Cytiopathic

Injection of only the viral nucleic acid into the host cell

The event that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is
A. Adsorption to the host cells
B. Injection of only the viral nucleic acid into the host cell
C. Host cell synthesis of viral enzymes and capsid proteins
D. Assembly of nucleocapsids
E. Replication of viral nucleic acid

plaques

Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called

viroids

Infectious naked strands of RNA that affect plants are called

purple and spherical shape

After gram staining, gram positive cocci bacteria are appeared

B and C

What is the correct scientific format of writing the following bacteria's name?
A. staphylococcus aureus
B. Staphylococcus aureus
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. B and C
E. A and B

A. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

There are 3 major taxonomic domain made by Woese and Fox. They are
A. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
B. Archaea, Eukarya, Prokarya
C. Prokarya, Eukarya, Bacteria
D. Fungi, Algae, Eukarya
E. Prokarya, Fungi, Viruses

A. Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals

There are 5 major taxonomic units or kingdoms
A. Protists, Plants, Fungi, plants, and human
B. Algae, Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals
C. Bacteria, Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals
D. Bacteria, Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Plants
E. Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals

Traits that seems beneficial for survival of organism

Evolution is selective for
A. Traits that seems beneficial for survival of organism
B. Traits that seems NOT beneficial for survival of organism
C. Evolution is not selective
D. More complex organisms
E. Simplest organisms

Classification of biological species

Taxonomy is the science of

Studying degree of relatedness between groups of organisms

Phylogeny is the science of

2 sets: 1 set of oculars and 1 set of objective

How many sets of lenses a light compound microspore has
A. 1 set: objectives
B. 2 sets: 2 sets of objective
C. 2 sets: 1 set of oculars and 1 set of objective
D. 1 set: oculars
E. None of above

True

Viruses are intracellular parasites.
A. True
B. False

True

Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes.
A. True
B. False

Neoplasia

Uncontrolled cell division in multicellular animal is called

True

In the process of stimulating cancer in host cells by a virus, viral DNA fragments are inserted into host DNA and stimulate uncontrolled division in the host cell
A. True
B. False

All of the Above

Which cell growth could be dangerous to our health?
A. Benign
B. Malignant
C. Tumor
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

Spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another

. Metastasis is
A. Spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another
B. abnormal growth of cells that are cancerous
C. abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
D. None of the above
E. All of the above

Normal genes that can become cancerous

Oncogenes are
A. Genes that are normally cancerous
B. Normal genes that can become cancerous
C. Normal genes that can NOT become cancerous
D. None of the above
E. All of the above

All of teh Above

Which of the following factors could be involved in activation of oncogenes?
A. Ultraviolet light
B. Radiation
C. Carcinogens
D. Viruses
E. All of above

False

Antibiotics are the best way to treat viral infections?
A. True
B. False

Prion

Proteinaceous infectious agents are called

Prion

Mad cow disease is caused by a

False

The viral capsid is acquired from host cell during viral replication or release.
A. True
B. False

lytic replication

Virus replication cycle that results in death and lysis of host cell is called

actin

Long polymers of _____ are arranged in helical ribbons and help to shape bacteria cells.

nuclear pores

Nuclear envelop contains structures that are called
A. Nuclear pores
B. Nuclear membrane
C. Nucleoplasm
D. Nuclear RNA
E. None of the above

2

A ribosome consists of _____ subunits.

modifies

Rough ER _____ proteins.
A. Transport
B. Modifies
C. Eliminates
D. Break down
E. All of the above

peroxisome

_____ contains enzymes that degrade oxidative poisonous wastes.

mitochondria

This organelle has DNA as part of its structure.
A. Golgi
B. Lysosome
C. Rough ER
D. Mitochondria
E. Smooth ER

False

Chloroplast is the site of cellular respiration.
A. True
B. False

True

In streak plate technique a small droplet of sample is spread over surface of medium with inoculating loop using a pattern that thins out sample and separates cells.
A. True
B. False

False

There are some prokaryotes cells that have rigid cell walls
A. True
B. False

True

Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells.
A. True
B. False

True

All types of cells have DNA.
A. True
B. False

False

Gram positive bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer compared to gram negative bacteria.
A. True
B. False

Compound

Molecules that are combinations of two or more different elements are called

molecules entering the reaction

In chemical equations, reactants are

synthesis

The reaction type in which reactants bond together to form an entirely new molecule is called

differential media

_____ allow multiple types of microorganisms to grow but display visible differences among those microorganisms

True

In organic chemistry, we deal with compounds that are mainly consist of C and H.
A. True
B. False

False

A nucleotide is composed of two parts: a sugar and a nitrogen base
A. True
B. False

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