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Water Frame

Invented, or possibly stolen, by Richard Arkwright; This acquired the capacity of several hundred spindles and demanded much more power—water power. So, it required large specialized mills, or factories; Despite it's larger capacity, it produced bad quality thread. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LEAD TO THE ADVENT OF FACTORIES.

Mule

Invented by Samuel Crompton; This was basically a cross between the Water Frame and the Spinning Jenny. This allowed it to harness the capacity of the Water Frame and the better quality thread of the Spinning Jenny. However, it couldn't weave very fast. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT CREATED GREAT EXPANSION WITHIN THE COTTON INDUSTRY, AS WELL AS LED TO THE INNOVATION OF MORE EFFICIENT SPINNING MACHINES.

Steam Engine

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Rocket

Invented by George Stevenson in 1825; This was so named because of its incredible speed for the time—16 miles per hour. This was completely unprecedented at the time. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LEAD TO THE CREATION OF LARGER, FASTER, AND MORE POWERFUL TRAINS; THUS, MORE ACCESS TO MARKETS, ETC.

Charcoal

This was initially used due to the need for a material that could be used to heat and refine iron; this came from wood, and because so much wood was needed to produce this, forests started to disappear. Thus, the more expensive wood became, the more expensive it became to produce iron. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LEAD TO MORE EFFICIENT ADVANCEMENTS IN HOW IRON WOULD BE HEATED AND PRODUCED.

Abraham Darby

He discovered that instead of using wood coal, one could produce higher quality iron by using a substance called "Coke," which was derived from coal. However, he kept his discovery a secret, so it took decades for the Coking process to get out into the industry. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS DISCOVERY OF COKE PRODUCED BETTER IRON AT A MUCH LOWER COST. AFTER THIS, THE IRON INDUSTRY TOOK OFF.

Henry Cort

He developed the Puddling Furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with Coke.

John Wilkinson

A fanatic about iron who developed a technique for boring cannon, which could later be applied to boring cylinders. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS INNOVATIONS LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMOOTHER, MORE UNIFORM CYLINDERS.

Great Exhibition

Started in 1851 by Prince Albert; These were all about technology, invention and progress; In 1851, an architect was called to build a building to house this. This building became known as the Crystal Palace.

Crystal Palace

Created for the first Great Exhibition in 1851, as a building itself it was an architectural and innovative master piece, as it was made completely out of glass and iron. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT SHOWED THAT THE SMALL ISLAND OF BRITAIN WAS THE "WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD."

Thomas Malthus

Irish clergyman who's book represented the beginning of demography. This was the "Essay on the Principle of Population," in which the main idea was that the population will grow more than the amount of food will. If this is the case, there would also have to be some sort of catastrophe like disease, famine, or war, to keep the population in check. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS IDEAS WERE INCREDIBLY INFLUENTIAL ON CHARLES DARWIN

David Ricardo

A stock broker and member of parliament who came up with the idea of comparative advantage as well as the idea of Iron Law of Wages, which stated that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to a subsistence level, meaning that wages would be barely high enough to keep workers from starving. He also argued that if wages were higher, people would have more kids, which would lead to a higher population, which would then lower wages. Although his theories were incorrect because as industrialization occurs people have less children because they don't need them as economic assets, his ideas were very influential. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATER ECONOMICS.

Cockerill Family

The family held most responsible with the spread of British industrialization; they came from Manchester, which would eventually become the largest textile-producing city in Britain. THEY ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE OF THEIR INFLUENCE IN SPREADING INDUSTRIALIZATION INTO CONTINENTAL EUROPE.

William Cockerill

A Lancashire carpenter who began building cotton-spinning equipment in French-occupied Belgium with his sons in 1799.

John Cockerill

The most famous son of William Cockerill; In 1817, he purchased what used to be the summer palace of the deposed bishops of Liege in southern Belgium, and made it into a large industrial enterprise which produced machiner, steam engines, and railway locomotives (later on). He had many skilled British workers come work for him so that he could compete and keep up with British innovations. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE NOT ONLY DID HIS FACTORIES IN LIEGE BECOME HUGE INDUSTRIAL POWERHOUSES, BUT MANY OF HIS WORKERS ENDED UP FOUNDING THEIR OWN FACTORIES; THUS CREATING MUCH OF THE EARLY SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION INTO CONTINENTAL EUROPE.

Fritz Harkort

A former Prussian soldier who witnessed that the British power came from their industrial developments, and became determined to bring these innovations back to Germany in order to make the region of Germany an actual state, as well as become Britain's industrial equal; Around the Rhine River, he created a factory to produce steam engines. However, because his German workers couldn't do the work, he was forced to bring in Englishmen who also didn't do the work they needed to, resulting in the failure of his business. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE REFLECTED THE ASPIRATIONS OF PEOPLE WHO WANTED TO INDUSTRIALIZE.

Friedrich List

German journalist who pushed for a Germany unified and fueled by economic growth. He also felt that if Germany was to catch up with Britain or the other leading economic countries, they needed railroads in order to unify trade among the German cities; He also supported the creation of a customs union called Zollverein. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE REFLECTS THE GOVERNMENT'S GREATER ROLE IN INDUSTRIALIZATION ON THE CONTINTENT THAN IN ENGLAND.

William Blake

A romantic poet who called the early factories "Satanic mills," and protested against the hard life of the London poor. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE REFLECTED THE ROMANTIC VIEW AGAINST INDUSTRIALIZATION.

William Wordsworth

A romantic poet who lamented the destruction of the rural way of life and the pollution of the land and water. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE REFLECTED THE ROMANTIC VIEW AGAINST INDUSTRIALIZATION.

Luddites

People who opposed progress in technology because they felt it destroyed rural methods of work, as well as took away jobs.

Friedrich Engels

A critic and associate of Karl Marx; he wrote "The Condition of the Working Class in England," which was about Manchester (?) and how the working class was deteriorating at an incredible rate. According to him, the new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of cottage workers and agricultural laborers. He believed the reason for this was industrial capitalism with its relentless competition and constant technical change.

Andrew Ure

Funded by the textile industry, basically making him a paid propagandist, who wrote in 1835 that conditions in most factories were not harsh and were quite good.

Edwin Chadwick

A utilitarian who held a position as commissioner of the Enforcement of the Poor who wanted to evaluate society scientifically. He investigated poverty scientifically, examining whether the working class was better of worse off. He studied this quantitatively by looking at what or how much a working class person could buy. Based on this, he concluded that their condition was better because they were able to afford their necessities as well as some minor luxuries. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS STUDIES SHOW US THAT WORKER'S SALARIES WERE INCREASING AT THE TIME.

Robert Owen

A Scottish factory owner who paid his workers more than other factories, provided better than standard housing for them, etc. Doing this made him very successful because his excellent treatment of employees gave him his pick of any number of workers he wanted; He also testified that employing children under the age of ten was dangerous for the children and not beneficial to the proprietors. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS TESTIMONY, AS WELL AS SOME OTHERS, LEAD TO THE PASSING OF CORRECTIVE ACTS LIKE THE FACTORY ACT OF 1833—CREATING BOUNDARIES FOR THE USE OF CHILD LABOR.

Factory Act of 1833

This law limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours of work, and the workday of adolescents to between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours of work. It also stated that children under the age of nine had to be enrolled in elementary schools that the factory owners were required to build; However the most important thing this did was create seven inspectors who are to inspect factories and make sure they are run in compliance with the law. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LEAD TO A LARGE DECLINE IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN, BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY LEAD TO THE BEGINNING OF BIG GOVERNMENT, OR A WELLFARE STATE.

Jeremy Bentham

Lead the Utilitarians, who wanted to create institutions that served the people best; He was like a very extreme enlightenment thinker, and said that tradition had to be done away with and all of our institutions and behaviors should be evaluated scientifically and quantitatively. He called this the "Pleasure-Pain Principle," in which he would quantitatively examine the amount of good (pleasure) or bad (pain) produced in an environment. He felt that if an institution produced more pain than pleasure, it should be done away with.

Kinship Groups

These were an informal way that workers looked out for themselves by providing help and support for each other as much as they could based on their connections, as well as provide a certain family-like security for each other.

Mines Act of 1842

This law prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under ten.

Peterloo Massacre

This was the huge meeting of working class men pushing for increased rights, that occurred in the city of Manchester in St. Peter's Square. During this meeting, the magistrate called in the militia who then slaughtered many innocent participants of the meeting.

People's Charter

This was drawn up by the Chartists demanding rights such as: universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, equal electoral districts, representation of working people by working people in parliament, members of parliament be paid (so workers could afford to be in parliament), and mandatory annual parliamentary elections; This was denied by parliament several times until the 1850's when every demand, except annual parliament elections, was met.

Labor Unions

This was a method that workers used to try to better their conditions which emerged during the Industrial Revolution, in which a group of workers who wanted collective bargaining, meaning that they negotiated their conditions in a unified way. These were very helpful to workers because it was easier for them to negotiate with their bosses as a group.

Combination Acts

In 1799, through these Parliament outlawed unions and strikes. Through these, the enlightenment idea of "Free Trade" comes into play as the unions had conflicted with this idea.

Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

Organized by Robert Owen, this was an effort to unionize all the workers in England.

New Model Unions

These were a series of un-affiliated unions in specific crafts who were interested in bettering conditions for the unions. They were successful in convincing people that unions could be a good thing. THESE ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE AS A RESULT, MANY SKILLED WORKERS WERE EMPLOYED.

Dual Revolution

This was the period after 1815 in which Political changes and Economic changes combined and reinforced each other, creating great intellectual challenge, social changes, and economic and political transformations. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT MUCH OF WORLD HISTORY IN THE PAST TWO CENTURIES CAN BE SEEN AS THE UNFOLDING OF THIS.

Congress of Vienna

Here, the Quadruple Alliance met to deal with the problem of France, due to the fact that they did not want France to challenge European stability as it had since the age of Louis XIV. The Quadruple alliance also decided that in order to keep France in check, the areas surrounding France had to be strengthened. All this policing was done in order to maintain European stability.THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT DID KEEP RELATIVE PEACE IN EUROPE FOR NEARLY A CENTURY.

Quadruple Alliance

These were the powerful winners of the Napoleonic wars, consisting of Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain. The representatives of these four nations were brilliant, meeting at the "Congress of Vienna" in order to control France, as well as creating somewhat of a "balance of power" in Europe, maintaining a great deal of stability throughout Europe. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE DESPITE SOME HICCUPS, THERE WAS RELATIVE PEACE IN EUROPE FOR NEARLY A CENTURY DUE TO THEIR CONTROL.

Klemens Von Metternich

Foreign minister of Austria; Came up with the idea of the Quadruple Alliance after seeing the many problems that Europe had acquired. He proposed the Quadruple Alliance stay in affect in order to police Europe and stamp out anything that might pose a threat to European stability; He was also a firm Conservative, believing that the state and society of pre-1789 Europe was ideal. He also firmly believed that Liberalism had been responsible for a generation of war with massive amounts of bloodshed and suffering. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS BRAINCHILD, THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE, WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR ALMOST COMPLETE PEACE FOR NEARLY A CENTURY.

Holy Alliance

The brainchild of Tsar Alexander I, and formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia in 1815; The goal of this was to unite all of Europe under the principles of Christianity. Most states actually do become members of the ____ _______, with the exception of the Turks, the Papacy, and Great Britain; Despite the powers that made it up, the ____ ______ never really did anything. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT STOOD AS A SYMBOL OF THE VICTORY OF CONSERVATIVE PRINCIPLES AFTER THE FALL OF NAPOLEON.

Carlsbad Decrees

Issued in 1819, these required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers. These also established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations. THEY ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY WILL BE MIRRORED ELSEWHERE, I.E IN THE "SIX ACTS"

Monroe Doctrine

Named after the U.S. president who issued it, this said that the "old world," (Europe) should keep their hands of the states. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT SERVED AS A LYNCH-PIN FOR FUTURE TRANSACTIONS.

Liberalism

(Only truly occurred in France and Great Britain) Associated with the principles of Liberty and Equality. Followers of this doctrine believe that Liberty and Equality exists in representative government, equal treatment under the law, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and equal opportunity. Economically, this stood for no government interference in economics—"Laissez Faire." This became very popular with the middle class.

Nationalism

This idea had its immediate origin in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, but it quickly spread across Europe; Advocates of this idea spoke of each people having their own "genius" and cultural unity. This genius was like the destined contribution to humanity, but this could only be brought out through national unity within a country; This could be either unifying of disintegrating based on the region. In areas like Germany or Britain, it would be unifying. But in largely multi-ethnic areas like Austria, Russia, or Britain, it could be very disintegrating as these ethnicities would clash; This idea also posed a large threat to the many long developed European dynasties such as the Hapsburgs, etc. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT CHANGED THE WAY PEOPLE VIEWED THEMSELVES; ALONG WITH THIS, IT ALSO CAUSED MORE DESTRUCTION IN THE PAST 200 YEARS THAN ANY OTHER IDEA.

Guiseppe Mazzini

Italian patriot and nationalist; he said that three things must happen in order to have a solid nation. These are: 1) Everyone must have the right to vote, 2) For a country's genius to bear fruit, everyone must be educated, 3) To be able to use a country's genius properly, everyone must have the opportunity to work.

Socialism

This idea takes root in France due to the fact that certain people believed there was an urgent need for reorganization of society in order to establish cooperation and a new sense of community. Practitioners of this argued that competition is destructive, and people should work together instead, in order to create a greater society. They believed the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition; Early practitioners of this idea also intensely desired to help the poor, and they believed the poor and rich should be made more nearly equal economically; They also believed that private property should be strictly regulated by the government, or abolished all together, to then be replaced by state or community ownership.

Utopian Socialists

The early French socialists were known as this, being dubbed as such by Karl Marx. Marx said that Socialism should be scientific and meaningful, rather than the "pie in the sky" version of socialism that the early French _______s believed.

Count Henri de Saint-Simon

A Utopian Socialist; He said that there were "Doers" and "Parasites" in society. The "Doers" were the scientists, industrialists, engineers, etc. The "Parasites" were churchmen, lawyers, judicial figures, etc. He felt that the "Doers" are the ones who are actually productive (therefore bettering humanity), so they should be in control of the country. However, he argued that it should be educated "Doers" who should run the country because they understood how things needed to work. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS IDEAS WOULD BE INFLUENTIAL ON LATER SOCIALISTS, SUCH AS KARL MARX.

Charles Fourier

A Utopian Socialist; He was a man with a tenuous hold on reality, envisioning a utopian, precise, and self-sufficient communities, each made up of 1,620 people, who would equally share what they produced. He said that all labor is valuable and contributes to the wellbeing of society, therefore each unit of people should be compensated the same amount; He also believed in the abolition of marriage, advocating "free love" instead. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS IDEAS WOULD BE INFLUENTIAL ON LATER SOCIALISTS, SUCH AS KARL MARX.

Louis Blanc

Journalist who wrote the Organization of Work in 1839, in which he urged workers to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully. He also believed that the state should set up government-backed workshops and factories to guarantee full employment. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE, ALTHOUGH THEY WERE ONLY SLIGHTLY SUCCESSFUL, THE WORKSHOPS DID PROVIDE MANY JOBS FOR DESPARATE FRENCH WORKERS.

Pierre Proudhon

Self-educated printer who wrote the pamphlet What Is Property?, in which he said that property was nothing but theft, and that property was profit that was stolen from the worker, who was the source of al wealth.

Karl Marx

The man essentially synonymous with 19th century socialism; Atheist and scholar; In 1848, he and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto, in which he said that history of all previous societies is a history of "class struggles." He felt that one class had always exploited another, and that the split between classes (The Bourgeoisie and Proletariat) was more obvious than ever during the age of modern industry. Just as the Bourgeoisie had beaten the feudal aristocracy, he felt that the Proletariat would soon conquer the Bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. His idea in this history of class struggles was heavily influenced by one of his professors—George Hegel. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS IDEAS UNITED SOCIOLOGY, ECONOMICS, AND ALL HUMAN HISTORY INTO ONE EDIFICE.

Georg Hegel

He argued that history moves through a process of struggle known as the "Dialectic." Being an idealist, he felt that periods in time were characterized by certain ideas. These ideas were known as "Theses." However, he also said that there would always be an opposing set of ideas—the "Antitheses." When these two collided, a "Synthesis" was produced. This new synthesis was also the new thesis—so, the "Dialectic" was a perpetual cycle. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS IDEAS GREATLY INFLUENCED KARL MARX AND THE THEORIES HE WOULD SYNTHESIZE.

Goya

Romantic painter; He served as the court painter for the king of Spain, and his portraits of aristocratic figures were highly acclaimed. However in 1792, he became deaf and his work became much darker and more austere. He went on to paint many images of the uprisings among the Spanish people, as well as grotesque images symbolizing a lapse of reason. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS WORKS HERALDED A NEW AGE IN EUROPEAN PAINTING, AS WELL AS HE WAS ONE OF THE FIRST ROMANTIC ARTISTS.

Constable

Romantic painter who painted emotional representations of nature. He used rough brush strokes as well as many other expressive devices in his works. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS WORKS HAD TREMENDOUS INFLUENCE ON OTHER FRENCH ROMANTICS.

Turner

Romantic painter who painted pictures steam engines, railways, and ships. Steam engines were his ideal image and he was a master at capturing the movement and excitement of them, as well as many other images. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE SHOWED THE CHANGE IN ATTITUDE OF SOCIETY AFTER THE CREATION OF RAILROADS.

Gericault

Romantic painter who painted the "Raft of Medusa," which was based on an actual event in which a group of people resulted to cannibalism while on a raft at sea. He interviewed survivors, steeping himself in horror. He would also bring severed heads and limbs back to his home (from the morgue) to study and inspire him. The romantic movement permeated not just into his art, but also his life.

Delacroix

Romantic painter who painted a representation of a slaughter of the Greeks by Turkish soldiers. Political turmoil in France also gave him much inspiration for more of his paintings. During his time, the French government was overthrown giving way to a constitutional monarchy. He then painted "Liberty Leading the People," which represented this revolution.

Berlioz

Romantic composer who wrote the "Symphony Fantastique." At the first performance of the "Symphony Fantastique," there was a story invented to go along with the music in order to give the musical performance more power and emotion. He was also commissioned to write a requiem for those who died in the 1830 massacre. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE INTRODUCED THE IDEA OF A PLOT TO A MUSICAL WORK.

Chopin

Polish romantic pianist and composer who wrote almost exclusively for piano, and rarely linked a story to his music. He was very experimental with his harmonies, often leaving musical lines unresolved. Some of his more experimental harmonies could be heard in his Mazurkas, which are traditional Polish folk songs; he was also close friends with Eugene Delacroix.

Mendelssohn

Romantic composer who found his ideal theme in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream. At the age of 18, he composed an overture for Midsummer Night's Dream.

Schumann

Romantic composer and essayist who was the master of the Character Piece, which was a musical work that crystallized a specific feeling or mood.

Liszt

Hungarian born pianist, who had the most dazzling technique of all the romantic virtuosos. He was a central, almost "Rock-Star" like, figure in 19th century music.

Wagner

A playwright turned opera composer who wrote both the words and the music to his operas. His early opera the Flying Dutchman told the story of an undead pirate and his crew. Another opera, Tristan and Isolde, was one of the most dramatic operas ever with its story of passionate love and death. He also wrote a four part cycle of the Ring of the Nibelungen, which had a story line based on German mythology.

Sturm und Drang

meaning, "Storm and stress," early German Romantics called themselves this. These romantic artists lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity. Suicides, duels, madness, strange illness, etc. were quite common among leading romantics. They typically lived sparse, bohemian lives, rejecting materialism in order to escape to some higher level of artistic being. These romantics also saw the growth of modern industry as an ugly, brutal attack on their beloved nature and on the human personality.

Lyrical Ballads

written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, this abandoned flowery classical conventions for the language of ordinary speech. In this, simplicity and love of nature in commonplace forms are prevalent throughout the book. This accurately illustrates Wordsworth's conception of poetry as the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility."

Walter Scott

Raised on his grandfather's farm in Scotland, he fell under the spell of old Scottish ballads and tales. Later in life, he was deeply influenced by German romanticism, particularly the work of Goethe, who's play Gotz von Berlichingen he actually translated; He also wrote Ivanhoe, which was based on Scotland and Scottish history—but in a much more romantic fashion.

Victor Hugo

Son of a Napoleonic general, he was the greatest in both poetry and prose. He achieved and amazing range of rhythm, language, and image in his lyrical poetry; Wrote the Hunchback of Notre Dame; He also renounced the conservatism of his early years, later equating freedom in literature with that of politics and society. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE EXMPLEFIED THE ROMANTIC FASCINATION WITH FANTASTIC CHARACTERS, EXOTIC HISTORICAL SETTINGS, AND HUMAN EMOTIONS.

Alexander Pushkin

The greatest of all Russian poets, he rejected eighteenth century attempts to classicize poetry, instead using his lyric genius to mold the modern literary language.

Alexander Ypsilanti

A native of Greece who served as a Russian commander, later leading the Greek forces against the Turks in 1821.

Decembrist Revolt

This occurred in Russia when liberals were protesting Nicholas being appointed tsar, trying to push for the rule of his brother Constantine. When Nicholas saw this, he had some of the protestors banished to Siberia and some killed. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT WAS THE BEGINNING OF THE RUSSIAN POLITICAL REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD.

Corn Laws

These were passed by parliament in 1815; During the wars with France, Britain had been unable to import cheap foreign grain from continental Europe, leading to high prices and large profits for the landed aristocracy. However, this lucrative time for the aristocracy ended with the wars with France. These laws were an attempt to bring back this beneficial system to the landed aristocracy; This new regulation banned importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels—basically guaranteeing a lucrative situation for the landed aristocracy. THESE ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEIR PASSING LED TO MASSIVE PROTESTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS BY URBAN LABORERS, WHO WERE SUPPORTED BY THE RADICAL INTELLECTUALS.

Six Acts

These were passed by parliament after the Peterloo Massacre, and they essentially censored the press, speech, etc, much like the Carlsbad Decrees. THESE ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE AFTER THEIR PASSING, THERE WAS A GREATER EFFORT TO PRODUCE MORE EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT.

Reform Act of 1832

Eventually, the Whigs were able to pass this, which essentially allowed the wealthy business class to vote. Although the working people had rallied with the business class to gain this right, only the business class won the right. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS WAS THAT IT OPENED UP THE POSSIBILITY FOR THE BRINGING ABOUT OF CHANGE.

Anti-Corn Law League

Founded in Manchester in 1839, this was made possible by the mass participation of fighting liberals who argued that lower food prices and more jobs in industry depended on the repeal of the corn laws. When the Great Famine hit Ireland, Tory Prime Minister Robert Peel joined the Whigs, and a minority of his own party to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846; thus allowing free imports of grain. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE AFTER THE REPEAL OF THE CORN LAWS, FREE TRADE BECAME ALMOST A SACRED DOGMA IN BRITAIN.

Ten Hours Act

This law limited the workday for women and young people in the factories to ten hours.

Great Famine

This occurred in Ireland as the result of the precarious conditions of a rapidly growing (and very poor) population, huge dependency on the potato, and then the failure of the potato crops in 1845, 1846, 1848, and 1851. Widespread starvation and mass fever epidemics followed. This shattered the Irish population growth, killing nearly 1.5 million people. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE AS A RESULT OF THIS, IRELAND BECAME A LAND OF CONTINUOUS OUT-MIGRATION, LATE MARRIAGE, AND WIDESPREAD CELIBACY.

Constitutional Charter of 1814

This was passed by Louis XVIII, and was essentially a liberal constitution that allowed the middle class and peasantry to keep their economic and social gains from the French Revolution, allowed for great intellectual and artistic freedom, and the creation of a parliament with an upper and lower house.

Charles X

The successor to Louis XVIII, he was crowned in a lavish, medieval-esque, five hour ceremony in 1824. He was a reactionary who wanted to re-establish the old order in France (Monarch→Aristocracy→Obedient peasantry). In order to rally support, he decided to attack Algiers. After his army is victorious in Algiers, he repudiates the Constitutional Charter; thus stripping much of the wealthy middle class from their voting rights, censoring the press, etc. The immediate reaction to this was revolution, and in three days, the government collapsed. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS ACTIONS LED TO THE REVOLUTION OF 1830 IN FRANCE.

Louis Philippe

Became king after the revolution of 1830; he accepted the Constitutional Charter of 1814, adopted the red-white-and blue flag of the French revolution, and said he was merely, "king of the French people." However things in France basically remained unchanged. Over the course of his rule, he became increasingly unwilling to make any changes, and corrupt. This stubborn unwillingness to make reform eventually sparked a popular revolt in Paris, and by February 24th, 1848, he abdicated in favor of his grandson. However, the commoners would tolerate no more monarchy, so they set up a provisioned republic headed by a ten-man committee. They also drafted a new constitution for France's second republic, as well as pushed for a truly popular democratic society in which all people had a say in the legislation of the country. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS CORRUPT RULE LED TO THE FORMATION OF FRANCE'S SECOND REPUBLIC, AND A TRULY POPULAR DEMOCRATIC STATE.

Constituent Assembly

This elected political body consisted of five-hundred moderate Republicans, three-hundred Monarchists, and one-hundred radicals who represented some sort of socialism.

June Days

These occurred after the government kicked out Louis Blanc and Albert from the committee, as well as abolishing the workshops in Paris. In response to this, the furious urban workers rebel, but are soon massacred by the army. THESE ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THE BLOODSHED DURING THEM CREATED GENERATIONS OF BITTERNESS AND HATRED BETWEEN THOSE IN THE CITY AND THE COUTNRYSIDE.

Louis Napoleon

The Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte who is elected in December of 1948 after the "June Days." When he was elected, people were under the impression that he'd maintain stability and order in France.

Sophia

The Bavarian archduchess and wife to Ferdinand I's brother, she assumed power from Ferdinand I, insisting that Ferdinand abdicate his throne to her son Francis Joseph. High ranking nobles in the government and army agreed, and they soon rallied around her to reverse and crush the growing revolution in Austria. SHE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE SHE PROVIDED THE RALLYING POINT NECISSARY TO CRUSH THE REBELLION IN AUSTRIA.

Fredrick William IV

Hohenzollern ruler of Prussia during the European revolutions of 1848. When artisans and factory workers in Berlin exploded in revolt, temporarily joined by the middle-class liberals, he soon caved in and promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created.

National Assembly

This was a self appointed committee of liberals from various German states who began writing a federal constitution for a unified German state while meeting in Frankfurt.

Schleswig-Holstein Crisis

This occurred when the nationalistic king of Denmark, Fredrick VII, tried to annex the two provinces, Schleswig and Holstein, into the kingdom of Denmark. Although he was duke of the two provinces, the inhabitants of them were predominantly German, and the idea of Germans being forced into the kingdom of Denmark infuriated the Germans in the provinces. The National Assembly then appealed to Fredrick William IV to send in troops to crush the Danes, and he did. The two provinces then go back to the way they were before. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS IS THAT IT DEMONSTRATED THAT THE NATIONAL IDEAL WAS A CRUCIAL FACTOR IN MOTIVATING THE MIDDLE CLASS IN 1848.

Edmund Cartwright

created an improved weaving machine in 1785 to keep up with "the mule": the power loom. He is significance because he finished the industrialization of the cotton industry.

James Watt

was a Scot who increased the efficiency of the steam engine by adding a condenser which had opening valves instead of continuously heating and cooling. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS INVENTION ALLOWED FOR THE BUILDING OF FACTORIES ANYWHERE, AS WELL AS FIXED THE LACK OF ENERGY PROBLEM.

Coke

was discovered by Abraham Darby. It was made from coal and was cheaper, higher quality, and more abundant than charcoal, the previous thing used to make iron before being replaced by coke. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT CAUSED A GREAT BOOM IN THE BRITISH IRON INDUSTRY.

Essay on the Principle of Population

It talked about the Malthusian principle which said population would always tend to grow faster than the food supply. In other words, production grows arithmetically while population grows geometrically. He said natural disasters, war, and marrying late limit population growth and people are made to live on subsistence level. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT GREATLY INFLUENCED DARWIN AND HIS THEORIES.

The Communist Manifesto

was a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848. There is a mixture of Marx's and Engels' opinions on politics and society. It said that history was based on class struggle. This idea was built off the philosophy of Georg Hegel. One class always dominated the other, and Marx predicted one day the proletariat, the lower class, would rise up and defeat the upper class, the bourgeoisie and get rid of class completely. In other words, socialism will take up capitalism. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT BASICALLY SERVED AS THE BIBLE OF SOCIALISM

Battle of Navarino

in 1827 when the English navy trapped the Turkish fleet in Navarino Bay and destroyed it. The English were defending the Greeks against the Ottoman Turks. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LED TO THE INDEPENDENCE OF GREECE, AS WELL AS CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY THERE.

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