1st Test Study Help Heath Keller

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Notes I took from class

Organizations

Collections of people who work together and coordinate their actions to achieve a wide variety of goals, or desired future outcomes.

Management

The planning, organizing, lending, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively.

High-performing organizations are ____&____.

efficient and effective

Organizational Performance

A measure of how efficiently and effectively a manager uses resources to satisfy customers and achieve organizational goals.

Efficiency

A measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goal.

Effectiveness

A measure of the appropriateness of the goals that managers have selected for the organization to pursue and of the degree to which the organization achieves those goals.

Give 3 Reasons to Study Management

1. The More Efficient/Effective use that organizations can make of those resources, the greater the relatice well-being and prosperity of people in that society.
2. Almost all of us encounter managers.
3. Might help you get a job if you understand managers/management.

Name 4 Tasks Of Management (p.o.l.c.)

Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling

Planning

Identifying and selecting appropriate goals; one of the four principal tasks of management.

Strategy

A cluster of decisions about what goals to pursue, what actions to take, and how to use resources to achieve goals.

Organizing

Structuring working relationships in a way that llows organizational members to work together to schieve organizational goals; on of the four principal tasks of management.

Organizational Structure

A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members so that they work together to achieve organizational goals.

We will always assume _____ factors and an _______ system

We will always assume environmental factors and and open system.

Satisfice

to provide a solution that is both satisfactory and sufficient

What do managers do?

Deal with uncertainty!

Closed System's 4 Points

Inputs-Convert-Outputs-Resources generated(put back into the inputs to go through again).

Difference between open and closed systems?

Uncertainty

We take an ______approach in this class?

Open System

Core Competency

"What we do", a set of knowledge and skills that make the organization superior to competitors and create value for customers

Technical Core

"Who are what does the core competency"

Competitive Advantage

"Our Reasons for Existence"-competing for resources to get an advantage.

What are the 3 levels of managers

Top, Middle, and First-Line Managers.

Who are the managers in direct contact with?

The CEO

What are the 4 Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage?

Efficiency, Innovation, Quality, and Responsiveness to Customers

Name an 18th Century Economist

Adam Smith

Craft-Style

each worker does every step

Production

each worker is specialized in one step.

Job Specialization

The process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in specific tasks...over time increases efficiency and leads to higher organizational performance.

Evolution of Management Theory

increasingly trying to find better ways to satisfy customer needs. (closing decades of the 19th century).

Bureaucracy

A formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.

A bureaucracy should have...(4 things)

1.Clearly Specified system of tasks and role relationships.
2. System of written rules and standard operating procedures that specify how employees should behave.
3. Clearly specified hierarchy of authority.
4. Selection and evaluation system that rewards employees fairly and equitable.

Codify

ideas or knowledge written down

Tacit

Ideas or knowledge that can't be written down.

Rules

Formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goals.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task.

Norms

Unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations and are considered important by most members of a group or organization.

Fayol's 14 Principles of Management (he believed did what?)

Increased the efficiency of the management process.

Theory X

The average worker is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little as possible.

Theory Y

assumes that workers are not inherently lazy, do not naturally dislike work, and, if given the opportunity, will do what is good for the organization.

Management Science Theory (Name the 4)

Quantitative Management, Operations management, total quality management, and management information systems.

Quantitative Management

utilizes mathematical techniques

Operations management

provides managers with a set of techniques that they can use to analyze any aspect of an organization's production system to increase efficiency.

Total Quality Management

focuses on analyzingan organization's input, conversion, and output activites to increase product quality.

Management information systems

helps managers design systems that provide information about events occurring inside the organizations as well as in its external environment-information that is vital for effective decision making.

The management science theory person wants the right answer...which is a ________ system.

Closed

Organizational Environment

The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization's boundaries but affect a manager's ability to acquire and utilize resources.

In an open system ____________ becomes a central concern.

Uncertainty

What are the stages of The Organization as an Open System.

1. Input Stage
2. Conversion Stage
3. Output Stage
(Sales of outputs allow organization to obtain new supplies of inputs...then the stages are repeated)

Synergy

the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects (example in class 2+2=5)

Contingency Theory

There is no one best way to organize.

Mechanistic structure

An organizational structure in which authority is centralized, tasks and rules are clearly specified, and employees are closely supervised.

Organic Structure

An organizational structure in which authority is decentralized to middle and first-line managers and tasks and roles are left ambiguous to encourage employees to cooperate and respond quickly to the unexpected.

Name the 5 Big Personality Traits

1. Extraversion
2. Negative Affectivity
3. Agreeableness
4. Conscientiousness
5. Openness to experience

Extraversion

one of the Big 5, a personality trait orients one's interests toward the outside world and other people, rather than inward

Negative Affectivity

one of the Big 5, the tendency to experience negative emotions and moods.

Agreeableness

one of the Big 5: sympathetic/ warm/ trusting/ cooperative

Conscientiousness

on of the Big 5, the tendency to be careful, scrupulous, and persevering.

Internal Locus of Control

the perception that one controls one's own fate

External Locus of Control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate

Self Esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

Need For Achievement

The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence.

Need for Affiliation

The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people get along.

Need for Power

the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others

Terminal Value

Personal conviction about lifelong goals or objectives (ex. a comfortable life, family security, etc)

Instrumental Value

Personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving. (ex. ambitious, cheerful, etc)

Organizational Citizenship behaviors

not required by organizational members but that contribute to an are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and competitive advantage.

Mood

feeling or state of mind

emotions

are more intense feelings than moods, are often directly linked to whatever caused the emotion and are more short-lived.

Self efficacy

One's belief in his or her own ability.

Organizational Commitment

the collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have out their organization as a while.

Organizational Culture

shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals.

Institutionalization

Overtime what is expected to be engrained

Legitimacy

(being legitimate) feeling apart of a system.

What is the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) Framework

posits that when founders hire emplyees for their new ventures, the tend to be attracted to and choose employees whose personalities are similar to their own.

ASA processes are most evident in ________ firms.

SMALL

4 parts of the organizational culture

1. Values of the founder
2. Ceremonies and rites
3. Socialization
4. Stories and Language

Ethics

moral principles or values

Ethical Dilemma

a decision that involves a conflict of values; every potential course of action has some significant negative consequences

Stakeholders

The people and groups that supply a company with its productive resources and so have a claim on and stake in the company.

Stockholders

are interested in the way a company operates because they want to maximize the return on their investment.

Utilitarian Rule

an ethical decision is a decision that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Justice Rule

an ethical decision is a decision that distributes benefits and harms among people and groups in a fair, equitable, or impartial way.

Practical Rule

Decision that a manager has no hesitation about communicating to people outside the company because the typical person would think it is acceptable

Moral Rights Rule

An ethical decision should maintain and protect the rights and privileges of people.

Societal Ethics

are standards that govern how members of a society should deal with one another in matters involving issues such as fairness, justice, poverty, and the rights of the individual.

Occupational Ethics

Standards that govern how members of a profession, trade, or craft should conduct themselves when performing work-related activities

Individual Ethics

standards that determine how people view their responsibilities and how they should act in situations when their own self interest is at stake

Organizational Ethics

The guiding practices and beleifs through which a particular company and its managers view their responsibility toward their responsibilty toward their stakeholders.

Social Responsibility

is the way its managers and employees view their duty or obligation to make decisions that protect, enhance, and promote the welfare and well-being of stakeholders and society as a whole.

4 approaches to Social Responsibility

1. Obstructionist Approach
2. Defensive Approach
3. Accommodative approach
4. Proactive approach

Ethics Ombudsman

a manager responsible for communicating and teaching ethical standards to all employees and monitoring their conformity to those standards.

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