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Thiamine (B1)

Precursor of PDH
Def: Beri Beri, Wernwicke's Encephalopathy

Riboflavin (B2)

Precursor of FADH
Def:Skin lesions

Niacin (B3)

Precursor of NADP and NAD
Def:Pellagra

Pentothenic Acid (B5)

Precursor for CoA
Def: Rare

B6

coenzyme in amino acid metabolism
Def: Rare

Biotin (b7)

Precursor in carboxylases
Def: Rare

Folic Acid (B9)

DNA synthesis
Def: Anemia

Cobalamine (B12)

DNA synthesis
Def: Megaloblastic Anemia

Calcium

Deficiency: Osteomalacia, rickets
Excess: Tissue calcification

Sodium

Def: Vomiting, decreased plasma volume
Excess: Hypertension

Potassium

Def: Cardiac arrythmias, vomitting
Excess: Cardioplegia, renal failure

A

Retinal+opsin= Rhodopsin
B-Carotene important antioxidant
Found in plants
Retinoic acid regulates growth of cells (acne treatment)
Toxic: Hypervitaminosis A, congenital defects

D

Calcium homeostasis: Increase calcium in blood,
increase bone resorption,
increase calcium absorption from intestine,
increase calcium reabsorption from kiney
PTH

E

Free radical scavenger

C

Reducing agent
Free radical scavenger protects vit E and A
Coenzyme in hydroxylation reactions- collagen synthesis
Keeps Fe2+ reduced in gut allowing iron absorption
Def:Scurvy

K

Blood clotting
Carboxyglutamate and calcium bridges
glutamate to carboxyglutamate

Water Soluble Vitamins

B, C

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