Chapter 25

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Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)

Elected President of France in December 1848. Won because of universal male sufferage (votes), had the name of his uncle, and believed that governement should represent the people and should try to help them economically.

Louis Napoleon's view on govenrment

Dismissed the National Assembly vand seized power in a coup d'etat because they didn't change the constitution so he could run for a second term. He restored univ. male sufferage and the people voted him president for ten years. His government encouraged investment banks and massive railroad construction, general economic expansion, ambitious program of public works, which caused increase in profits of business people and unemployment declined. Had urban workers support until 1860s and granted workers the right to strike. Regulated pawn shops and supported credit unions and better housing for working class. Restricted the National Assembly which was elected every 6 years by univ. male sufferage. 1860s his electoral system gradually disenigrated.

Giuseppe Mazzini

Wanted to unify Italy through a centralized democratic republic based on univ male sufferage and the will of the people.

Vincenzo Gioberti

a Catholic Priest who called for a federation of existing states under the presidency of the pope to unify Italy

Victor Emmanuel

Sardinia's monarch. Retained the liberal constitution under the duress in March 1848.

Pius XI

gave initial cautious support for the unification but after being driven from Rome, the papacy opposed the unification and its modern trends for a long time. Strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty.

Camillo Benso di Cavour

dominant in Sardinian government 1850-1861. Sought unity for only northern and central Italian states. Made a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Austria attacked Sardinia and Napoleon abandoned them; Sardinia only received Lombardy and Cavour resigned. Cavour returned to power and gained Napoleon III's support by ceding Savoy and Nice to France. Then central Italy joined with Sardinia (ppls vote).

Giuseppe Garibaldi

wanted to liberate the kingdom of the the Two Sicilies. He prepared to attack Rome and the pope but Cavour intercepted him. He and Emmanuel helped seal the union of north and south of monarch and nation state.

Zollverein

the German customs union founded in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states (didn't include Austria after 1848). Tariff duties reduced so Austria couldn't join due to industry. 1853 all German states had joined except for Austria.

William I

Replaced Frederick William IV of Prussia. wanted to double the size of the army causing higher taxes. Middle classes wanted a less militaristic society and wanted parliament to have ultimate political power. Parliament rejected military budget.

Frederick William IV

attempted to unify Germany "from above" but stopped by Austria and Russia.

Otto Van Bismarck

Called by William I to head the new ministry and defy parliament. Took office as chief minister in 1862. Wanted the government to rule without parliamentary consent and lashed out against the middle class. He reorganized the army.

The Austro Prussian War of 1866

Prussia joined Austria in a short and successful war against Demark, but Bismarck was convinced Prussia needed to completely control the northern part of the German Confederation and expelled Austria from German affairs. War between Austria and Prussia lasted 7 weeks. The defeated Austria at the Battle of Sadowa in Bohemia. The German Confederation was dissolved and Austria agreed to withdraw from German affairs.

North German Confederation Constitution

Fashioned by Bismarck after Austro-Prussian War. Each state retained its own local government but the king of Prussia became president of the confederation and the chancellor-Bismarck-was responsible only to the president. The federal government-William and Bismarck-controlled the army and foreign affairs. Also a legislature with members of the lower house elected by universal male suffrage.

Franco-Prussian War

War began in 1870 and Bismarck had the support of the south German states. German forces under Prussian leadership defeated the main French army at Sedan and Louis was captured. French patirots proclaimed another French Republic and continued fighting until they couldn't and were forced to accept Bismarck's harsh terms. William I proclaimed emperor of Germany; king and ministers had ultimate power in new German empire and lower house of legislature elected by univ. male suffrage. France had to pay alot and give Alsace and part of Lorraine to Germany.

Crimean War

Russia was expanding and came into conflict with the French and Turks. Britain then allied with the French to prevent the expansion of Russia and increase in their power.

Schleswig-Holstein affair

Ruled by Denmark (not annexed). In 1863 Denmark may annex Schleswig and Bismarck issues an ultimatum. Denmark was confident of French and British aid and rejects the ultimatum. The Germans invade and Denmark has no support. This Danish crisis bound all classes to identify themselves as German.

Modernization

The changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time; Russia underwent this beginning in the 1860s

Alexander II

reigned in Russia (1855-1881) Worked along the path of rapid social change and general modernization due to the military disaster in the Crimean War. Had many reforms during his reign which came to a stop after he was assassinated in 1881.

Russian Modernization

Serfs were freed in 1861 and Human bondage was abolished forever. Emancipated received half of the land but had to pay a lot. Old patterns of agriculture dominated due to lack of money. Legal system was reformed establishing independent courts and equality before the law. Education and policies towards Russian Jews somewhat liberalized. Industrial suburbs grew and a new class of modern factory workers began to emerge. Military strengthened causing territorial expansion. Also a spread of Marxian thought.

Zemstvo

established in 1864. A local assembly elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners. Dealt with local problems. Liberals hoped this would lead to an elected national parliament, but it remained subordinate to the traditional bureaucracy and local nobility.

Alexander III

(r 1881-1894) took over after Alexander II was assassinated. Reform came to an end because he was a reactionary. Economic modernization sped forward a lot due to surge of 1890s nationalism.

Sergei Witte

minister of finance from 1892-1903 in Russia. Believed that the harsh reality of industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness.

Russian Industrialization

state-own railroads built rapidly by the government, high protective tariffs were established to build Russian industry. Encouraged foreigners to build factories in Russia

Russo-Japanese War

Russia and Japan clashed in an imperialist war over dominating northern China. Japane wanted to move in on the territory, but Russia controlled it. After being ignored, Japan launched an attack on Russia and the war began. Japan was successful and was a shock to the rest of Europe.

Bloody Sunday

January 1905 a massive crowd of workers and their families converged peacefully at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. Troops then suddenly opened fire, killing and wounding hundreds. This turned ordinary workers against the tsar and produced a general wave of indignation.

October Manifesto

The tsar issued this which granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (parliament) with real legislative power. It split the opposition and middle class leaders helped the government repress the uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchy.

Duma

a popularly elected parliament with real legislative power promised by the tsar during the October Manifesto. Issued the Fundamental Laws; the tsar retained great powers, the Duma and the upper house could debate and pass laws, but the tsar had an absolute veto. Tsar later dismissed the Duma because the middle-class liberals (largest group in the Duma) saw them as a step backwards, but later restored with landowners assured half the seats.

Decline of Ottoman Empire

Ottomans began to fall behind western Europe in 18th c. Napoleonic wars caused them to grant Serbia local autonomy in 1816 and in 1830 Greeks won their independence. The decline of the sultan's "slave army"--janissary corps also reflected their weakness.

Tanzimat

the 1839 era of radical reforms launched by the Ottomans designed to make the empire on a western model. New decrees called for the equality of Muslims, Christians, and Jews before the law and modernized administration and the military. There was free importation of foreign goods and a somewhat embrace of western education. This had partial recovery but fell short of its goals because of: growth of nationalism among subjects and an increase of religious disputes.

Young Turks

Turkish exiles in Europe and young army officers in Istanbul. They seized power in 1908 and forced the sultan to implement reforms. The helped prepare the way for the birth of Turkey.

Reasons Toward Popularity of a Nation State

Popularized because more people could vote, the woman's suffrage movement achieved some success, individual political parties could gain leverage from their supporters, governments created a sense of unity and diverted attention away from class conflicts, and after 1871, governing elites used anti liberal and militaristic policies to help manage domestic conflicts, increasing national tensions.

Structure of German Government

There was a strong national government with a chancellor and until 1890 a popularly elected lower house called Reichstag. Parliament was still maintained giving room for political parties and Bismarck relied on the National Liberals.

Kulturkampf

Bismarck's attack on the Catholic church because he was alarmed by Pius IX's declaration of papal infallibility in 1870. This asked the German Catholics to put loyalty to the church above the nation. The attack only had success in Protestant Prussia. Catholics usually voted for the Catholic Center Party so Bismarck abandoned his attack and entered an agreement with the Party for economic reasons.

William II

the new emperor who succeeded William I of Prussia. He opposed Bismarck and forced him to resign. Socialist ideals still spread rapidly and more Social Democrats were elected to the Reichstag in the 1890s.

Paris Commune

When France was forced to surrender Alsace and Lorraine to Germany, Parisians exploded in patriotic frustration and proclaimed the Paris Commune in March 1871. They wanted to govern Paris without intervention from the conservative country side, but the National Assembly crushed the Commune.

Structure and Policies of the Third Republic

Moderate republican leaders helped stabilize the republic. They won the hearts and minds of the next generation. Trade unions were fully legalized, and France acquired a colonial empire.

French Educational Reforms

Between 1879 and 1866 free compulsory education for girls and boys was established. The state system of public tax that supported schools was expanded. These reforms disturbed French Catholics and many rallied until the 1890s but Pope Leo XIII eased the tensions between church and state.

Dreyus Affair

A case where a man was falsely convicted of treason. This case tore France apart; one side was the army and the other was civil libertarians. This case revived the republican feeling against the church and between 1901 and 1905, the government severed all ties between church and state.

Adolphe Thiers

He headed the National Assembly when they crushed the Paris Commune

Leon Gambetta

one of the most famous moderate republican leaders in France

Alfred Dreyfus

Jewish captain of the French army falsely convicted of treason. His family fought to reopen his case and had support of prominent republicans. He was eventually declared innocent.

Benjamin Disraeli

He and the conservatives extended the vote to all middle class males and best-paid workers of the Second Reform Bill to broaden the Conservative Party's' traditional base.

People's Budget

Designed to increase spending on social welfare services. It was at first vetoed by the Lords but they finally capitulated.

David Lloyd George

He inspired the Liberal party between 1906 and 1914 in Britain.

William Gladstone

Liberal Prime minister who introduced bills to give Ireland self-government in 1886 and in 1893. They failed to pass.

Irish Home Rule

Would help Ireland to achieve self-government. Irish Catholic in the southern territories wanted it, but the northern countries of Ulster, Irish Protestants, opposed it. December 1913 Ulsterites raised 100,000 armed volunteers to oppose the Home Rule. Liberals in the House of Lords introduced a compromise bill that didn't apply to the northern countries; rejected because it betrayed promises made to the Irish nationalists. Original passed in September but then suspended leading to the World War.

Dual Monarchy

The defeat by Prussia in 1866 forced Austria to establish this. Magyars gained virtual independence from Hungary. Two states joined by a monarch and common ministries.

Magyar Policies

Magyar nobility in 1867 restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate the MAgyar peasantry and the minority populations until 1914. Wealthiest males had right to vote.

Anti-Semitism

Reappeared after the stock-market crash of 1873. Built on the general reaction against liberalism and its economic political policies. Popular among conservatives, extremist nationalist, and people who thought they were threatened by the Jews. Created modern political parties to attack and degrade the Jews.

Karl Lueger

In Austria, Vienna he and his "Christian socialists won striking electoral victories spurring Theodor Herzl to turn from German nationalism and advocate political Zionism and the creation of the Jewish state. Appealed to German lower middle classes.

Second International

Socialist leaders came together to form this lasted until 1914; had a great psychological impact. May 1 declared an international one day striike of marches and demonstrations

Revisionism

an effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time. An awful sin in the eyes of Marxists.

Edward Bernstein

Argued in Evolutionary Socialism that Marx's predictions that the great poverty of workers and the greater concentration of wealth had been proved false. Socialists should reform their tactics and doctrines and combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains. Denounced as heresy by German social democratic party. and Second International.

Juan Juares

repudiated revisionist doctrines in order to establish a unified socialist party.

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