The Respiratory system is the ____ for human spoken communication.
List the two primary functions of the respiratory system.
1. Maintain life
2. Exchange O2 and CO2 necessary to sustain life
List the 2 secondary functions of the respiratory system.
1. Power for speech
2. Creates column of air which is the power for voice (sound) production
List the components of the Thoracic and Abdominal skeletal system that enclose, protect, a support the respiratory system with its bony framework.
1. Vertebral Column
2. Pelvic Girdle
3. Pectoral Girdle
4. Rib Cage
How many vertebrae are in the Vertebral Column?
List 2 Functions of the Vertebral Column.
1. Anchor and point of suspension for thorax
2. Bony passageway for nerves
List the 5 sections of vertebrae and how many are within each.
1. Cervical (7)
2. Thoracic (12)
3. Lumbar (5)
4. Sacral (5)
5. Coccygeal (Coccyx or Tail bone)
The Thoracic vertebrae form the ______ system base.
The pectoral girdle includes...
The Pelvic Girdle provides support for...
The abdominal musculature
The Pelvic Girdle is composed of ...
3. Pubic Bone
How many pairs of ribs are there?
List the sections of ribs and how many are in each section.
1. True Ribs=1-7
2. False Ribs=8-10
3. Floating Ribs=11 & 12
List the anterior and posterior anchors for the ribs.
The anterior (front) anchor for the ribs is the sternum. It is the anchor for ribs 1-10. The posterior (back) anchor for the ribs is the vertebrae.
The Thorax consists of ...
3. Pleural Membranes
The central cavity containing the heart, blood and lymph vessels, esophagus, thymus, gland and nerves.
Provides protection and structural support for the inner containing lungs and the outer containing fluid.
Pulmonary System consists of...
The larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes (bifurcation of the trachea), and the lungs (bronchioles, alveolar sacs).
What is/are the smallest functioning unit of the respiratory system?
The alveolar sacs.
Define Respiration Portals
ways to enter the pulmonary system
The Respiration Portals contain the...
Nasal Cavity and the Oral Cavity
Define Nasal Cavity and its function.
Nares=opening. Warms, moistens, filters air accomplished by specialized epithelium tissue (mucous membrane and cilia).
Define Oral Cavity and its function
Its opening is the mouth and this is the site of speech sound production.
Define Pharynx and its contents.
The throat or a passageway. It consists of the Naso pharynx (behind the nasal cavity), Ovopharynx (back of the mouth), and the Hypopharynx or Larygopharynx (common throat area for nose and mouth).
Define Larynx and its functions.
Cartilaginous and muscular structure that acts as a valve. Its primary function is biological while its secondary function is phonatory.
Trachea and Bronchial Tubes
Incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage covered with membrane--rigid, yet flexible tube.
Define Lungs and list what they contain.
The lungs are not a muscle. There are two--a right and a left lung. The right ling is larger and has two lobes while the left lung is smaller and has two lobes. The lungs are composed of lobes. They are conical in shape, spongy and elastic tissue and contain bronchioles. The lungs also contain alveolar sacs.
The have 300, 000, 000 (3 hundred million) alveoli, are lubricated, and balloon-like. They are the site of gaseous exchange and resist inflation. Blood vessels are adjacent.
What cavity needs to expand first in order to accommodate the expansion of the alveolar sacs when they fill with air and cause the lungs to expand?
The Thoracic cavity needs to expand in order to create a larger space that the lungs will require.
List 3 ways in which the Thoracic Cavity can expand.
3. Anterpostiorally (front to back)
What is the most protected region of the body?
Define Diaphragm and its functions.
A dome-shaped muscle, and central tendon. It separates the thoracic from the abdomen. It is the primary muscle of inspiration, causes lung expansion and is innervated by the phrenic nerve.
Accommodates larger air volume, and is also referred to as the Bucket Handle Movement. It torques the ribs upward and outward. This is accomplished by the external intercostal muscles (2ndary muscles of inhalation) and is innervated by the spinal nerves exiting.
Referred to as the Pump Handle movement. This movement is accomplished by the Levatores Costarum Muscle and he Serratus Posterior Superior muscle. It results in clavicular breathing, which is less efficient and not typical. It is innervate by the thoracic spinal nerves.
What other muscles may be required in addition when a vigorous breath is needed?
The muscles in the neck, chest, and back may be called on for their additive contractive value.