Chapter 3 Cells

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19 terms

cell

in biology, the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and contain DNA and cytoplasm

cell membrane

a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment

organelle

one of the small bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function

nucleus

in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction

prokaryote

a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

eukaryote

an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane

cell wall

a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell

ribosome

a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids

mitochondria

in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration

golgi complex

cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell

vesicle

a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell

lysosome

a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes

tissue

a group of similar cells that perform a common function

organ

a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

organ system

a group of organs that work together to perform body functions

organism

a living thing; anything that can carry out life processes independently

structure

the arrangement of parts in an organism

function

the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part

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