Chapter 3

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The trophoblast is:

the outer layer of cells that develops during the germinal period.

The endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm develop during the __________ period.

mbryonic

Which layer of embryonic cells eventually becomes the circulatory system, bones, and muscle?

mesoderm

Which of the following is NOT part of the embryonic period?

creation of the zygote

Which is the longest period in prenatal development?

fetal

A bag or an envelope in which the developing embryo floats is called the:

amnion.

The human is 11 inches long, has an audible heartbeat, sucks its thumb, and hiccups. Which trimester of development is this human in?

second

__________ is (are) factor(s) that cause birth defects.

Teratogens

FAS is a cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who __________ in pregnancy.

drink alcohol heavily

According to research, all of the below are negative results of pre-natal exposure to marijuana, EXCEPT:

learning and memories difficulties at age 6.

The mortality rate of infants born to adolescent mothers is:

two times greater than infants born to mothers in their 20s.

In stage __________ of labor, contractions cause the woman's cervix to stretch and open.

1

An insufficient supply of oxygen is called:

anoxia.

In the United States, about what percentage of births are attended by a midwife?

8%

An epidural block is a type of:

anesthesia.

The surgical removal of the baby from the uterus (Caesarean sections) are performed EXCEPT when:

labor is longer than 12 hours.

Babies born after a regular period of gestation but weighing less than __________ pounds are called low-birthweight infants.

five and a half

All the following factors are part of the postpartum period EXCEPT:

abstaining from exercise.

Regarding bonding, which of the following statements is FALSE?

There is evidence that bonding is critical to the development of a competent infant.

Grantley Dick-Read

English obstetrician who developed natural childbirth

Ferdinand Lamaze

French obstetrician who developed prepared childbirth

Tiffany Field

Explored the role of touch and massage in development

T. Berry Brazelton

Developed a neonatal assessment of neurological development

germinal period

The period of prenatal development that takes place in the first 2 weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.

blastocyst

The inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period. These cells later develop into the embryo.

trophoblast

The outer layer of cells that develops in the germinal period. These cells provide nutrition and support for the embryo.

Embryonic period

The period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.

placenta

A life support system that consists of a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine.

umbilical cord

A life support system that consists of two arteries and one vein; it connects the baby to the placenta.

amnion

The life support system that is a bag envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats.

organogenesis

Organ formation that takes place during the first 2 months of prenatal development.

fetal period

Prenatal period of development that on average begins 2 months after conception and lasts for 7 months.

teratogen

From the Greek word tera, meaning "monster", any agent that causes a birth defect. The field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects is called teratology.

doula

A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth.

Apgar Scale

Widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth. The Apgar Scale evaluates an infant's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)

A measure that is used in the first month of life to assess the newborn's neurobiological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects.

postpartum period

The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process and aftermath of childbirth. This period lasts for about 6 weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state.

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

Cluster of abnormalities that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy.

natural childbirth

Developed in 1914 by Dick Read, this method attempts to decrease fear through education and relaxation techniques.

prepared childbirth

Developed by French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, this childbirth strategy is similar to natural childbirth but includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor.

breech position

A baby's position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina

kangaroo care

Treatment for preterm infants that involves skin-to-skin contact.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)

Measure that provides a comprehensive analysis of the newborn's neurological and stress responses and regulatory capacities.

low-birth weight infant

An infant that weighs less than 5½ pounds at birth

preterm infants

Those born before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation.

small for date infants

Infants whose birth weight is below normal for the length of gestation.

bonding

The formation of a close connection, especially a physical bond between parents and newborn in the period shortly after birth.

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