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Adenine

a purine that bonds to thymine (T) in DNA and uracil (U) in RNA

Allele

This is an alternative form of a gene

Biotechnology

This is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.

Central Dogma

This is the the theory that describes protein building in this order: DNA to RNA to protein. DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein. Protein is never back-translated to RNA or DNA; DNA is never directly translated to protein

Chromosome

This is the structure in the cell nucleus that houses a cell's genetic information

Chromosome Theory

This theory of inheritance states that genes are located on chromosomes which undergo segregation and independent assortment.

Codominance

This is a type of heredity where two dominant alleles are both fully expressed in a phenotype

Codon

This is a 3 letter sequence of DNA or messenger RNA code that stands for one amino acid in a protein

Color Blindness

This is the inability to perceive differences between some or all hues that other people can distinguish, most of the time it is due to a genetic disorder but can have other causes.

Cystic Fibrosis

This is an autosomal recessive heredity disease that affects the respiratory and digestive systems.

Cytosine

a prymindine bonds to guanine (G) in DNA.

Deletion

A genetic mutation caused by the loss of a chromosomal segment

DNA

This holds an organisms hereditary information.

DNA Fingerprinting

This is a technique used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA.

DNA Sequencing

This is a biochemical process used for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in any DNA molecule. By comparing the DNA sequence of two organisms, scientists can see if the organisms are related or not, as well as how closely they are related.

Dominant Trait

This is an observable trait of an organism that can mask the recessive trait.

Double Helix

This is the structure of DNA as first published by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953

Down's Syndrome

This is caused by trisomy 21 (a nondisjunction), causing highly variable degrees of learning difficulties and physical disabilities

Electrophoresis

This is the process of separating DNA fragments by size using an electric field and a fluorescent dye.

Forensics

This is the application of a wide range of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. DNA analysis is one component that may be used to place a suspect at a crime scene.

Frameshift

This is a genetic mutation caused by the insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotides that changes the amino acid sequence from the site of the mutation forward.

Gamete

This is a haploid cell with half the reproductive information from the parent.

Gene

This is a segment of DNA on the chromosome that is coded for a particular trait.

Generation

The next level of offspring from the parent. For humans, it occurs about once every 30 years

Genetic Cross

This is showing possible outcomes, genotypes and phenotypes, of offspring from two parents. This is usually shown using a Punnett square.

Genetic Disorders

These are inherited diseases that cause negative, abnormal physical effects in organisms.

Genetics

This is the science of genes, heredity and variation of organisms

Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism; combination of genes in an organism

Guanine

a purine that bonds to cytosine (C) in DNA.

Hemophilia

This is a genetic disorder that impairs a blood's ability to clot.

Heredity

This is the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring.

Heterozygous

This is an organism that has two different alleles for the same genetic trait.

Homozygous

This is an organism that has two identical alleles for the same genetic trait.

Human Genome Project

This mapped all the genes in the human genome

Hybrid

This is the offspring of a genetic cross between parents with different traits.

Incomplete Dominance

This is a trait that is a blend of the dominant and recessive gene; inheritance pattern where the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes; neither allele of the pair is dominant but combine and display a new trait.

Independent Assortment

This is one of Mendel's principles that govern the process of genetic inheritance. It states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes (sex cells). This means that traits are passed to offspring independently of one another.

Inheritance

The passing on of genetic traits from parents to offspring.

Karyotype

This is the complete set of all chromosomes of a cell of any living organism. They are often displayed in a photograph of chromosomes that have been grouped into matching pairs.

Law Of Dominance

One of Mendel's Laws of Inheritance. This law states an organism has two different alleles for a trait and the allele that is expressed in the phenotype, masking the expression of the other allele,is said to be dominant. The allele whose expression is masked is said to be recessive.

Law Of Segregation

This is Mendel's first law. For each inherited trait, there are at least one pair of alleles. This states that during gamete formation each member of an allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic make-up of a gamete (sex cell).

Meiosis

This is a process where a parent cell divides into four sex cells with half the chromosomes.

Gregor Mendel

This scientist is known as the Father of Genetics, because of his work with pea plants.

Mendelian Inheritance

This is the concept that organisms pass traits to offspring through genes

Mitosis

The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.

Monohybrid Cross

This is a type of Punnett square genetic cross that predicts the result of crossing two different alleles for the same gene.

mRNA

This is one form of RNA that that serves as a template for protein synthesis. It is transcribed from DNA and then translated at ribosomes to produce a protein.

Multiple Alleles

This is the possibility of one of many different genes on a chromosome; presence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait.

Mutation

This is a random error/change in the DNA sequence. These may be inherited or occur in cells during the lifetime of the organism

Nitrogenous Base

This is the only part of a DNA/RNA nulceotide that changes. It is found along with the 5-carbon sugar and the phosphate group.

Nondisjunction

This is the failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis.

Nucleotide

This is the repeating structural unit that forms RNA and DNA.

Nucleus

The structure that houses the cells genetic information

Offspring

These are the descendants of the parent generation

Parent

This is the generation that produces the offspring.

Pedigree

A chart that shows the relationships within a family.

Phenotype

The physical expression of genes; outward appearance.

PKU

This can be a fatal genetic disorder in which metabolic wastes build up in an individual's body.

Point Mutation

This is a genetic mutation caused by the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. This term also includes insertions or deletions of a single base pair.

Polygenic Traits

This is the inheritance pattern controlled by more than two genes

Protein Synthesis

This is a two-part process that ends in the assembly of proteins at the ribosomes within cells. The first part, transcription, begins in the nucleus, when the DNA code is transferred to mRNA. The second part, translation, takes place at the ribosomes, where both mRNA and tRNA work to assemble proteins.

Punnett Square

This is a diagram that shows the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

Recessive Allele

This is a form of a gene that is hidden by another, dominant, form of the same gene

Recessive Trait

A trait that can be masked by another one

Recombinant DNA

This is an artificial genetic sequence from combining two other sequences in a plasmid

Replication

This is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

Ribosome

This organelle synthesizes proteins

RNA

A single stranded nucleic acid that plays a role in protein synthesis

Sex Chromosomes

This is the biological determination system for the sex of an offspring

Sex Linkage

This is a situation in which genes are attached to an organism's sex chromosomes; the sex of an organism influences the expression of a gene; traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes.

Sexual Reproduction

Process by which two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism

Sickle Cell Anemia

This is a genetic disorder where the red blood cells change their shape and can get stuck in capillaries

Tay-Sachs Disease

This is a fatal genetic disorder, inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance called ganglioside accumulate in the nerve cells in the brain.

Thymine

a pyrimidine that bonds to adenine (A) in DNA.

Trait

A specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

Transcription

This is the process of copying DNA to RNA.

Translation

This is the second step of production of proteins where mRNA is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide

Translocation

This moves a segment from one chromosome to another, nonhomologous one

Trisomy

This is the result of nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis. This mutation results in three copies, instead of the normal two. It can happen with sex or autosomal chromosomes.

tRNA

This is one form of RNA that transports a specific amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis.

Uracil

This is the nitrogenous base only found in RNA; bonds to adenine (A) in DNA.

Homologous Chromosomes

Paired chromosomes with genes for the same traits arranged in the same order.

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