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Ovaries

1. are the paired female gonads
2. resemble unshelled almonds in both size and shape
3. are located in the upper pelvic cavity, one on each
side of the uterus
4. are held in position by a series of ligaments.

Ovarian Follicles

1. are little sacs or cavities that contain a developing
oocyte contained within the ovary
2. A single _________ matures every 28 days through
the reproductive years of women.

Function of Ovaries

1. oogenesis which is the formation & development of
the ovum (ova or egg)
2. hormone production of estrogen & progesterone

Uterine or Fallopian Tubes

1. Also called Oviducts
2. are two (2) tubes about 4 inches long
3. extend laterally from the uterus
4. are not attached to the ovaries.

Oviducts

Another name for Uterine or Fallopian Tubes

Structure of Oviducts

THREE PARTS
1. INFUNDIBULUM - the funnel-shaped, open, distal
end that lies close to the ovary ends in a fringe of
fingerlike projections called the fimbriae.
2. AMPULLA - The widest and longest portion makes
up the lateral 2/3 of its length .
3. ISTHMUS - The more medial, short, narrow, thick
portion that joins the uterus

Infundibulum

The funnel-shaped, open, distal end of the Oviducts that lies close to the ovary ends in a fringe of
fingerlike projections called the fimbriae.

Ampull

The widest and longest portion of the Oviducts. Makes up the lateral 2/3 of its length.

Isthmus

The more medial, short, narrow, thick portion of the Oviduct that joins the Uterus

Function of Uterine Tubes

1. transports the ova from the ovaries to the uterus
2. is the normal site of fertilization
3. if the egg becomes fertilized, it will descend into the
uterus within 7 days

Uterus or Womb

1. is a hollow, thick-walled highly muscular organ
2. is situated between urinary bladder and rectum
3. is the size and shape of an inverted pear
4. before the first pregnancy it measures 3 inches long,
2 inches wide and 1 inch thick.

Anatomical Subdivisions of Uterus

1. fundus - the dome shaped portion superior to the
uterine tube
2. body - the major, central tapering portion
3. cervix - the narrow, inferior portion that opens into
the vagina

Fundus of Uterus

The dome shaped portion of the Uterus, superior to the uterine tube

Body of Uterus

the major, central tapering portion of the Uterus

Cervix

the narrow, inferior portion of the Uterus that opens into the vagina

Orientation of Uterus

Normally the body of the uterus projects anteriorly and superiorly over the urinary bladder.

Metron or Metrium

Suffixes for Uterus

Perimetrium

The outer layer (serosa) of the Uterus and is part of the
visceral peritoneum

Myometrium

1. The middle, muscular layer of the Uterus that is
composed of smooth muscle.
2. It forms the bulk of the uterine wall.
3. This is important during delivery to move the child
out of the uterus.

Endometrium

1. The inner layer of the Uterus
2. Composed of simple columnar epithelial tissue and
mucosa. It is also highly vascular (rich in blood).
3. This is the layer where the fertilized egg burrows
into the uterus, a process called implantation.
4. In non- pregnant females, this is the layer that
sloughs (sheds) off during menstruation.

Functions of Uterus

1. Serves as part of the pathway for sperm to reach the
uterine tube
2. It is also the site of menstruation
3. Site of implantation of a fertilized ovum
4. Development of the fetus during pregnancy

Menstruation

1. Also known as the menstrual cycle
2. The cyclical shedding of the lining of the uterus in
response to changes in hormonal levels;
3. Is the periodic discharge of blood, tissue, fluid,
mucous and epithelial cells from the endometrium

Ovulation

1. The process of the release of the ovum from the
ovary
2. The USUAL frequency is every 28 days.
3. Occurs two weeks before menstrual period begins

Vagina

1. A short canal which extends from the uterus to the
vulva (external genitalia)
2. Considered the terminal portion of the birth canal
3. Composed of smooth muscle with a mucous
membrane lining. This type of muscle tissue allows
the vaginal canal to accommodate the penis during
sexual intercourse. It also permits the fetus to pass
through the vaginal canal during birth
4. Serves as a passageway for menstrual flow
5. Serves as a passageway for childbirth
6. Receives the penis during sexual intercourse

Vulva

1. Collective term for external female genetalia
2. Are the reproductive structures located external to
the vagina

Mons Pubis

A pad of fatty (adipose) tissue that lies over the pubis bone

Labia Majora

1. Are two longitudinal folds of skin extending
downward from the mons pubis and covered by
pubic hair.
2. These contain an abundance of adipose tissue and
sweat glands.

Labia Minora

1. Are two small folds of delicate skin.
2. These lie medial to the labia majora and do not
contain hair and have a few sweat glands,
3. They do contain numerous sebaceous glands.

Clitoris

1. Small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue and nerves. 2. It is located at the anterior junction of the labia
minora.
3. Is homologous to the male penis as it is also capable
of enlargement by becoming swollen with blood
during sexual stimulation.
4. Unlike the penis, however, it does not have an
internal duct.

Vestibule

Is the region between the labia minora.

Bartholin's Glands

Two small glands located on both sides of the vaginal
orifice which secrete mucous which lubricates the distal end of the vagina during sexual intercourse.

Mammary Glands

1. Are present in both the male and female however,
they normally function in the female.
2. They are modified sweat glands and lie anteriorly on
the pectoralis major muscle and are attached by a
layer of dense irregular connective tissue.
3. Estrogen causes the __________ _________to increase
in size during puberty.

Breasts

1. Are considered to be accessory organs of
reproduction.
2. They are LACTOGENIC (milk producing) in nature
thus providing nourishment for the new born.
3. Therefore, the breasts function is to synthesize,
secrete and eject milk.

Lactogenic

Milk producing

Glandular Lobes or Compartments

1. 15 to 20 Lobes arranged in a radial arrangement
around the nipple and are covered by adipose tissue.
2. It is the amount of adipose tissue that determines
the size and also gives the breast its form.

Lactiferous Ducts

1. Each glandular lobe has one.
2. They join and eventually empty into the Lactiferous
Sinus

Lactiferous Sinus

1. Lactiferous Ducts empty into this
2. Continues as a short Lactiferous Tubule which opens
at the base of the nipple.

Lactiferous Tubule

1. Is the continuation of the Lactiferous Sinus
2. Opens at the base of the Nipple

Areola

The anterior surface of each breast contains a circular pigmented area called the _____________ , which surrounds the nipple.

Flow of Milk

1. lactiferous duct
2. lactiferous sinus
3. lactiferous tubule
4. nipple

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