Presidents in Order
Thomas Jefferson: 1801-1809
James Madison: 1809-1817
James Monroe: 1817-1825
John Quincy Adams: 1825-1829
Andrew Jackson: 1829-1837
Issues of Jefferson's Presidency
Abolished the "Midnight Judges" of Adams
Barbary Pirates raiding American Ships
North Eastern States want to secede due to westward expansion.
National Bank's control over Economy
French/British Possible War
Strengths of Jefferson's Presidency
Louisiana Purchase (1803 for 15 million)
Decreased the National Debt along with Albert Gallatin
Increased flow of settlers to the West
Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton
Burr (VP) wanted to secede with the northeastern states, Hamilton refused. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, Hamilton died. Burr was later a quited of treason by Chief Justice John Marshall.
Land in the West
$2 per acre, later only $1.25.Farmers could buy land with only $100
Embargo Act, no trade with Britain/France
Issues of Madison's Presidency
War of 1812
Non-Intercourse Act-would only trade if America's neutrality was recognized
Strengths of Madison's Presidency
Annexed Florida into America\
Framer of U.S. Constitution
Author of Bill of Rights and Federalist Papers
Leading Republican by 1795.
Co-author of Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Last Prez to serve in Cont. Army/Officer in Continental Army
Graduate of William and Mary
Last president to fight in Revolutionary War.
Minister to France, 1794-96
Sympathetic to France; chief negotiator along
with Robert Livingstone of Louisiana Purchase.
Favored a weak executive and a strong legislature.
Strengths of Monroe's Presidency
Mississippi, Illinois, Maine, Alabama and Missouri admitted to the Union.
As president, he made two long European tours.
The United States acquired Florida and warned the Russians to attempt no further movement southward into the continental United States.
Issues of Monroe's Presidency
Increasing sectionalism and economic depression began to challenge Monroe as term in office unfolded.
Missouri applies to be a slave state in 1819 and is denied admission to the Union; the matter is debated in Congress until finally in 1820, the Missouri Compromise is passed allowing Missouri to enter as slave state and Maine as free state.
Issues of Quincy-Adam's Presidnecy
Too advanced for his time
1841 Post presidency years when he successfully defended Amistad mutineers who were taken illegally to be enslaved in the Americas; Adams won them the right to stay in America or return to Africa
Strengths of Quincy-Adam's Presidency
Advocated national program of highways and canals partially achieved: C&O Canal, Delaware and Chesapeake Canal, Dismal Swamp Project.
Pushed for national university, federal funding for scientific expeditions and building of national observatory—not supported by Congress
Served as Minister to both Netherlands
Sec. of State to James Monroe
Considered founder of the Whigs
Tariff of 1828 ( Tariff of Abominations) was most unfavorable legislation.
Enlargement of Territory
Treaty of Ghent
Madison sends Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams and Albert Gallatin to hold peace talks
Ends War of 1812.
British surrender territory in continental U.S.
American gains status as independent nation and one able to hold its own.
Secret Meetings of Northeastern states to secede from the Union.
December 15, 1814-January 4, 1815
War of 1812
Caused by violations of the Treaty of Paris.
British were impressing soldiers and seizing cargo
Stirring up trouble with Indians in the West
Great Lakes; coastal Canada
Fought during Madison's Presidency
Battle of New Orleans
took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.
Made Andrew Jackson a prominent figure in America.
Only commercial, not political
The Whig Party (1833-56)
Formed in opposition to Jackson and Democrats ( former Democratic Republicans)
Pro- strong Congress over strong executive.
Pro-modernization: expansion, economic development, internal improvements.
Pro- protectionist policies to allow American manufacturing to flourish.
The Great Triumvirate
Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, & John C. Calhoun
Senator from Massachusetts
Considered outstanding orator of his day.
Supported strong national government and protective tariff.
Opposed annexation of Texas because it would create imbalance in slave vs free states; supported Fugitive Slave Law
Most Famous Moment: Webster-Haynes Debate over tariff; "liberty and union now and forever, one and inseparable
Senator from Kentucky
Known as Great Compromiser or the Great Pacifier; man who brokered Missouri Compromise, helped lower tariff to resolve Nullification Crisis.
National Republican who founded Whig Party
Supported high tariff, national bank, federal support of internal improvements.
Political platform was the American System which united all regions economically of the U.S. as Alexander Hamilton had envisioned
John C. Calhoun
Senator from South Carolina
Changed from staunch nationalist and supporter of strong federal government, supporter of Clay's American System to become a avid states' rights advocate after election of 1824; initiated Nullification Crisis over tariff of 1828.
Supported white supremacy, paternalism, male suffrage and argued slavery was a "positive good."
19th Century Politics
Newspapers became prominent
Electoral College decides Prez
Whigs->weak Prez and strong Congress
Politics were like Sports
Men could vote w/o owning property