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A (An) __________ is a cognitive structure that helps individuals organize and understand their experiences.

scheme

_____________ occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences.

Assimilation

Which of the following is Piaget's stage of cognitive development for infancy?

sensorimotor

According to Piaget, one of the most important accomplishments in infancy is the development of:

object permanence.

Piaget suggested that the third substage of the sensorimotor stage occurred between ages:

4 and 8 months.

Piaget's fifth substage of the sensorimotor period involves __________ circular reactions.

tertiary

Joint attention requires all of the following, EXCEPT:

the ability to recognize something recently experienced.

Andrew Meltzoff is known for:

demonstrating infants' imitative abilities.

The term ___________ refers to memory without conscious recollection.

implicit memory

Memory, manipulation, and auditory and visual attention are measures in which of the Bayley scales of infant development?

mental

__________ is a form of communication based on a system of symbols.

Language

On the average, infants understand ___ words at 13 months.

50

___________ is the use of short and precise words without grammatical markers.

Telegraphic speech

A 20-month-old child would most likely communicate with:

two-word utterances

__________ is a biological endowment that enables children to detect certain language categories such as phonology, syntax, and semantics.

A language acquisition device

When Jacob says "Me big boy!" his mother replies "Yes, you are a big boy!" This is known as:

expanding.

Jean Piaget

Contributed to cognitive theory by observing his three children

Renée Baillargeon

Infants as young as 4 months expect objects to be substantial and permanent

Carolyn Rovee-Collier

Demonstrated detailed memory in 2- to 3-month-old infants

Andrew Meltzoff

Studied imitation and deferred imitation by infants

Jean Mandler

Argued that explicit memory does not occur until the second half of first year

Arnold Gesell

Developed a clinical measure to assess potential abnormality in infants

Nancy Bayley

Devised the most commonly used infant intelligence test

Noam Chomsky

Believes humans are biologically prewired to learn language

Roger Brown

No evidence supports reinforcement as responsible for language rule systems

Patricia Kuhl

By the age of 6 months, infants gradually lose the ability to recognize differences in sounds that are not important to their language

Michael Tomasello

Young children are intensely interested in their social worlds; early in development they can understand the intentions of other people

Betty Hart & Todd Risley

Children whose parents are on welfare have a smaller vocabulary than do children whose parents are professionals

Janellen Huttenlocker

Infants whose mothers speak often to them have markedly higher vocabularies

Naomi Baron

Parents should be active conversational partners with their infants, talk as if their infants understand them, and use language in a style they are comfortable with

Elizabeth Spelke

young infants interpret the world as having predictable occurrences

schemes

In Piaget's theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

organization

Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system.

simple reflexes

Piaget's first sensorimotor substage, which corresponds to the first month after birth. In this substage, sensation and action are coordinated primarily though reflexive behaviors.

first habits and primary circular reactions

Piaget's second sensorimotor substage, which develops between 1 and 4 months of age. In this substage, the infant coordinates sensation and two types of schemes: habits and primary circular reactions.

secondary circular reactions

Piaget's third sensorimotor substage, which develops between 4 and 8 months of age. In this substage, the infant becomes more object-oriented, moving beyond preoccupation with the self.

coordination of secondary circular reactions

Piaget's fourth sensorimotor substage, which develops between 8 and 12 months of age. Actions become more outwardly directed, and infants coordinate schemes and act with intentionality.

tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Piaget's fifth sensorimotor substage, which develops between 12 and 18 months of age. In this substage, infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things that they can make happen to objects.

internalization of schemes

Piaget's sixth and final sensorimotor substage, which develops between 18 and 24 months of age. In this substage, the infant develops the ability to use primitive symbols.

object permanence

The Piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched.

attention

The focusing of mental resources.

deferred imitation

Imitation that occurs after a delay of hours or days.

language

A form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.

infinite generativity

The ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules.

equilibration

A mechanism proposed by Piaget to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next.

sensorimotor stage

The first Piaget stage, in which infants construct an understanding of the world through sensory experiences and motor actions.

A and B error

Also called AB error, this occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B), as they progress into Piaget's substage 4 in sensorimotor development.

memory

A central feature of cognitive development, pertaining to all situations in which an individual retains information over time.

implicit memory

Memory without conscious recollection; involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed.

explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state.

developmental quotient (DQ)

An overall score that combines subscores in motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell assessment of infants.

phonology

The sound system of the language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined.

morphology

Units of meaning involved in word formation.

syntax

The way that words are combined to form acceptable phases and sentences.

semantics

The meaning of words and sentences.

pragmatics

The appropriate use of language in different contexts.

telegraphic speech

The use of short and precise words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxiliary words, and other connectives.

aphasia

Loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain damage.

Broca's area

Area in the brain's left frontal lobe involved in speech production.

Wernicke's area

Area of the brain's left hemisphere involved in language comprehension.

language acquisition device (LAD)

Chomsky's term to describe a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.

child-directed speech

Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences.

Joint attention

Occurs when individuals focus on the same object and an ability to track another's behavior is present, one individual directs another's attention, and reciprocal interaction is present.

Deferred imitation

Imitation that occurs after a delay of hours or days.

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