Clinical Procedures Chapter 31

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83 terms

Apnea

absence or cessation of breathing

Arrhythmia

an abnormality or irregularity in the heart rhythm

Bounding

term used to describe a pulse that feels full because of increased power of cardiac contraction or as a result of increased blood volume

Bradycardia

a slow heartbeat; a pulse below 60 beats per minute

Bradypnea

respirations that are regular in rhythm but slower than normal in rate

Cerumen

a waxy secretion in the ear canal; commonly called ear wax

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

a progressive, irreversible lung condition that results in diminished lung capacity

Diurnal Rhythm

a pattern of activity or behavior that follows a day-night cycle

Dyspnea

difficult or painful breathing

Essential Hypertension

elevated blood pressure of unknown cause that develops for no apparent reason; sometimes called primary hypertension

Febrile

fever; pertaining to an elevated body temperature

Homeostasis

internal adaptation and change in response to environmental factors; multiple functions that attempt to keep the bodys functions in balance

Hyperpnea

an increase in the depth of breathing

Hypertension

high blood pressure

Hyperventilation

abnormally prolonged and deep breathing, usually associated with acute anxiety or emotional tension

Hypotension

blood pressure that is below normal

Intermittent Pulse

a pulse in which beats occasionally are skipped

Orthopnea

a condition in which an individual must sit or stand to breathe comfortably

Orthostatic Hypotension

a temporary fall in blood pressure when a person rapidly changes from a recumbent position to a standing position

Otitis Externa

inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal (swimmers ear)

Peripheral

a term that refers to an area outside of or away from an organ or structure

Pulse Deficit

difference between the apical and radial pulse

Pulse Pressure

the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures

Pyrexia

a febrile condition or fever

Rales

abnormal or crackling breath sounds during inspiration

Rhonchi

abnormal rumbling sounds on expiration, which indicate airway obstruction by thick secretions or spasms

Secondary Hypertension

an elevated blood pressure resulting from another condition, typically kidney disease

Sinus Arrhythmia

an irregular heartbeat that originates in the sinoatrial node (pacemaker)

Spirometer

an instrument that measures the volume of air inhaled and exhaled

Stertorous

a term that describes a strenuous respiratory effort marked by a snoring sound

Syncope

fainting; a brief lapse in consciousness

Tachycardia

a rapid but regular heart rate; one that exceeds 100 beats per minute

Tachypnea

a condition marked by rapid, shallow respirations

Thready

a term that describes a pulse that is scarcely perceptible

Wheezing

a high pitched sound heard on expiration; it indicates obstruction or narrowing of respiratory passages

Vertigo

dizziness; a sensation of faintness or an inability to maintain normal balance

Temporal, Carotid, Apical, Brachial, Radial, Femoral, Popliteal, Dorsalis Pedis

Metabolism

the process of chemical and physical change in the body that produces heat

Cardinal Signs

vital signs are also referred to as...

TPR and BP

the four vital signs abbreviated

Anthropometric

measurements including height, weight and other body measurements such as fat composition and head and chest circumferences

60-100

normal range for adult pulse

12-20

normal range for adult respirations

100-120/60-80

normal range for adult blood pressure

Heat Lost and Heat Produced

temperature is the balance between what and what

Continuous Fever

rises and falls only slightly during the 24 hour period

Intermittent Fever

comes and goes, or it spikes then returns to average range

Remittent Fever

has great fluctuation but never returns to the average range; constant fever with fluctuating levels

Fever of Unknown Origin

a fever over 100.9 F for 3 weeks in adults and 1 week in children without a known diagnosis; FUO

Rectal Temperatures

when taken accurately, are approximately 1 degree F higher than oral readings

Axillary Temperatures

are approximately 1 degree F lower than accurate oral readings

Tympanic

this type of thermometer is used in ear

Temporal

this type of thermometer is used on forehead

Axillary

this type of thermometer is used in armpit

Tempa Dot

most common disposable thermometer

Higher

are infants pulse higher or lower than adults?

Higher

is a 30 year old patients pulse normally higher or lower than a 60 year old patient?

Hypothalamus

temperature regulating center

Rate

how fast or slow

Volume

how much blood is being circulated

Rhythm

equal spacing between beats (too fast, too slow or consistent)

Inspiration and Expiration

one complete what and what equals a respiration

Myocardium

heart muscle

140 or above

hypertension diagnosis for high blood pressure; systolic

90 or above

hypertension diagnosis for high blood pressure; diastolic

120 to 139

prehypertension diagnosis number; systolic

80 to 89

prehypertension diagnosis number; diastolic

90 or below

hypotension diagnosis for blood pressure; systolic

60 or below

hypotension diagnosis for blood pressure; diastolic

closest to tympanic membrane

give one advantage to an Aural temp

Infants and children

when would we take an apical pulse

Rate, Rhythm, Volume of Pulse and Condition of Arterial Wall

4 characteristics of pulse

Rate, Rhythm and Depth

3 characteristics of respirations

Rectal

most accurate way to take a temperature

Axillary

least accurate way to take a temperature

Red

rectal thermometers are what color

Blue

oral thermometers are what color

Otitis Externa and Impacted Cerumen

name two reasons you wouldn't take an Aural temperature

First Sound Heard, Systolic

phase I of Korotkoff Sounds

Last Sound Heard, Diastolic

Phase V of Korotkoff Sounds

Cardiac Cycle

sounds are heard through the stethoscope, and gauge readings are taken when the systolic and diastolic sounds are heard

Contracting

during the systolic phase the ventricles are...

Relaxing

during the diastolic phase the ventricles are...

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