anatomy and physiology chapter 3: cells and body tissues

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cells and tissues plus nursing terminology

organelles

numerous small structures that function like organs in a cell

tissue typing

a procedure performed before transplanting an organ from one individual to another

cilia

fine hair-like extensions found on the exposed or free surfaces of some cells

aerobic or cellular respiration

the process that uses oxygen to break down glucose and other nutrients to release energy that is required for cellular work.

ribosomes

produce enzymes and other protein compounds often called "protein factories"

mitochondria

provide energy-releasing chemical reactions that go on continuously.

lysosomes

organelles that can digest and destroy microbes that invade the cell

golgi apparatus

chemical processing and packaging center. mucus is an example of a product manufactered by this.

centrioles

rod shaped structures that play an important role in cell division. two of these exist in every cell

chromatin granules

thread-like structures made up of proteins and DNA

cytoplasm

the internal living material of a cell

interphase

the specific and visible stages of cell division are proceded by this period

pleural cavity

the thoracic cavity containing the lungs, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland

nerve tissue

a collection of nerve fibers that conduct impulses that control and coordinate body activities

endocrine system

glands and other structures that make hormones and release them directly into the circulatory system

mediastinum

the mass of tissues and organs seperating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels.

gastrointestinal system

a long tube commonly called the GI tract: consists of mouth, trachea, esophagus,stomach, and intestines. accessory organs are the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

cell

minute protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of the nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. Fundamental, structural, and functional unit of living organisms. Each cell performs necessary functions for its own life. cells multiply by dividing (mitosis)

CC

abbreviation for chief complaint

respiratory system

nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Furnishes oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

Ca

calcium

midsaggital plane

a plane that vertically divides the body or some part of it into equal right and left portions. it is also called the medial plane.

C

centigrade

homeostasis

a steady state

spinal cavity

cavity containing the spinal cord

nervous system

brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS); the autonomic system (ANS), or peripheral nervous system, consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

musculoskeletal system

skeleton and muscles: the 206 bones, the joints, cartilage, ligaments and all of the muscles in the body

organ

a body part that performs special functions: ex. heart lungs and liver

cap.

abbreviation for capsule

C&S

abbreviation for culture and sensitivity

cc

abbreviation for cubic centimeter

CATH

abbreviation for catherize

CBR

abbreviation for complete bed rest

nucleus

a spheroid body within a cell, consisting of a thin nuclear membrane and genes or chromosomes.

connective tissue

the fibrous tissues of the body; that which binds together and is the ground substance of the various parts and organs of the body; examples are bones, tendons and so on.

muscle tissue

tissue that contracts; consists of straited (striped), cardiac and smooth muscles.

CA

cancer, carcinoma

cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels; blood pumped and circulated through body.

CAD

abbreviation for coronary artery disease

epithelial tissue

the skin and living surfaces that protect, absorb and excrete

genitourinary system

reproductive and urinary organs; also called urogenital system. GU or UG. the urinary organs are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. the reproductive organs are the gonads and various exterior genitalia and internal organs

cell membrane

a thin layer of tissue, serving as the wall of a cell. selectively allows substances to pass in and out of the cell. refuses passage to others.

cranial cavity

space enclosed by skull bones; containing the brain.

peritoneal cavity

the space containing the stomach, liver, intestines, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder

coronal plane

also called the frontal plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior (front and back)

transverse plane

a plane that divides the body into superior and interior (top and bottom)

metabolism

sum of body physical and chemical processes that convert food into elements for body growth, energy, and repair.

tissue

a group of similarly specialized cells that together perform certain functions

system

a set of body organs that work together for a common purpose

CBC

abbreviation for complete blood count

CHF

abbreviation for congestive heart failure

Cl

chloride

CO2

carbon dioxide

CP

cerebral palsy

CS

abbreviation for central supply

CVA

cerebrovascular accident

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CCU

coronary care unit

cm

centimeter

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

C-Section

cesarean section

CNS

central nervous system

c/o

complains of

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

What are the 3 major regions of a cell?

nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane

diffusion

the movement of a substance from an area of its higher concentration to an area of its lower concentration

filtration

the movement of substances through a membrane from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower hydrostatic pressure.

passive transport

process by either diffusion or filtration

active transport

uses ATP (energy) provided by the cell

endocytosis

process in which particles are taken up by enclosure in a plasma membrane sac, includes phagocytosis

osmotic pressure

determines whether cells gain or lose water

hypertonic solution

a solution that contains more solutes than do cells. in these solutions cells lose water by osmosis and crenate.

hypotonic solution

a solution that contains fewer solutes than do cells. in these solutions, cells swell and may ruture as water rushes in by osmosis.

isotonic solution

solutions that have the same solute to solvent ratio as cells. cause no change in cell size or shape.

mitosis

begins after DNA has been replicated; it consists of four stages: prophase, mataphase, anaphase, and telophase. the result is two daughter nuclei, each identical to the mother nucleus

EPITHELIUM

is the covering, lining, and glandular tissue. Its functions include protection, absorbtion, and secretion. Epithelia are named according to arrangement (simple, stratified) and cell shape (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)

connective tissue

is the supportive, protective, and binding tissue. it is characterized by the presence of a nonliving, extracellular matrix produced and secreted by the cells; it varies in amount and consistency. fat, ligaments, and tendons, bones and cartilage are all connective tissues

nervous tissue

is composed of cells called neurons, which are highly specialized to receive and transmit nerve impulses and supporting cells. neurons are important in control of body processes. nervous tissue is lovated in nervous system structures- brain spinal cord and nerves

muscle tissue

is specialized to contract, or shorten which causes movement. there are 3 types: skeletal (attached to the skeleton), cardiac (forms the heart), and smooth (in the walls of hollow organs)

tissue repair

wound healing. may involve regeneration, fibrosis, or both. in regerneration the injured tissue is replaced by the same type of cells. in fibrosis, the wound is repaired with scar tissue. Epithelia and connective tissues regenerate well. mature cardiac muscle and nervous tisse are repaired by fibrosis.

endoplasmic reticulum

may be smooth or rough

osmosis

is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane when some of the solutes cannot cross the membrane

dialysis

involves the movement of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane by process of diffusion

active transport process

is the uphill movement of a substance through a living cell membrane

simple squamous epithelial

located in the alveoli of the lungs it functions by absorbtion by diffusion of respiratory gases b/w alveolar air and blood. also found in lining of blood and lyphatic vessels functions by absorbtion by filtration, osmosis, and diffusion

stratified squamous epithelial

is lovated on the surface of lining mouth and esophagus also the surface of skin it is protection

simple columnar epithelial

found on surface of layer of lining of stomach, intestines, and parts of resp. tract. functions by protection, secretion, and absorbtion

stratified transitional epithelial

found in urinary bladder. protects

pseudostratified epithelial

found in surface of lining of trachea protects.

simple cuboidal epithelial

found in glands; kidney tubules. secretion and absorption

areolar connective

b/w other tissues and organs. functions as connection

adipose connective tissue

under skin. protection and insulation

dense fibrous

tendons, ligaments, fascia, and scar tissue. flexible but strong connection

bone connective tissue

skeleton. support and protection

cartilage connective tissue

found in part of the nasal septum, larynx, rings of trachea and bronchi, disks b/w vertebrae and external ear. firm but flexible support

blood connective tissue

found in blood vessels. transportation

hemopoietic tissue

found in red bone marrow. blood cell formation

skeletal muscle

muscles that attach to bones, eyeballs and upper third of the esophagus. functions to move bones

cardiac muscle

found in wall of the heart, functions for the heart to contract

smooth (non striated involuntary or visceral)

found in walls of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tract walls of blood and large lymphatic vessels, ducts of glands, intrinsic eye muscles, and arrector muscles of hair. functions to move substances along ducts; change in diameter of pupils and shape of lens

nerve cells

found in brain and spinal cord functions: irritability and conduction

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