Where is the Uvula found?
Midline of the soft palate
What is Waldeyer's Ring composed of?
The three tonsils.
What tonsil is found in the posterior tongue?
What tonsil is found at the Tonsillar sinus?
What tonsil is also refered to as the Adenoids?
What bones make up the hard palate?
The maxilla and palatine
What are the major nerve supplies of the hard palate?
V2 and the pharyngeal plexus
What does the Maxillary Division of the Trigeminal Nerve divide into in the hard palate?
Greater and Lesser Palatine nerves
What is the major nerve in the pharyngeal plexus?
Describe the first part of the tongue.
Anterior 2/3 which is housed in the oral cavity proper.
Describle the second part of the tongue.
Posterior 1/3 which is housed in the oropharynx
What are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
Genioglossus, hyoglossus, Styloglossus, Palatoglossus.
By what nerve are the majority of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue innervated?
Hypoglossus (Cn XII; Genioglossus, hyoglossus, Styloglossus)
By what is the palatoglossus, the only extrinsic muscle of the palate not innervated by Cn XII, innervated?
Pharyngeal Plexus (Cn X)
What are the nerves involved in General Sensation of the tongue?
Lingual Nerve (V3; Anterior 2/3); Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Cn IX; Posterior 1/3)
What are the nerves involved in Special Sensations of the tongue?
Chorda Tympani (Vn VII; Anterior 2/3); Glossopharyngeal (Cn IX; Posterior 1/3)
What is the major blood supply to the tongue?
The Lingual Nerve (V3) is very closely associated with what structure?
What structures are found inbetween the Hypoglossus muscles and the Mylohyoid muscle?
Submandibular Duct (Wharton's); Sublingual Gland; Lingual Nerve (V3); Hypoglossus N (Cn XII)
What are the muscles of the soft palate?
Tensor vili palatini, Levator vili palatini, Palatoglossus, Palatopharyngeus, Musculus Uvulae
By what nerve are the majority of the muscles of the soft palate innervated?
Pharyngeal Plexus - Cn X (Levator vili palatini, Palatoglossus, Palatopharyngeus, Musculus Uvulae)
By what nerve is the Tensor vili palatini innervated?
By what nerve is the salpingopharyngeus, located in the pharynx, innervated?
What muscles originate from the Auditory tube?
Stylopharyngeus, Pharyngeal Constrictors (Superior, Middle, Inferior)
By what nerve are the pharyngeal constrictors innervated?
Pharyngeal Plexus (Cn X)
By what nerve is the stylopharyngeus innervated?
Glossopharyngeal (Cn IX) - only muscle in the pharynx innervated by Cn IX
What muscles are involved in opening the auditory tube?
Tensor vili palatini, Salpingopharyngeus
What muscle elevate and retracts the soft palate?
Levator vili palatini (Pharyngeal Plexus)
What are the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?
What are the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
Posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid, cricothyroid, thyroarytnoid, vocalis (all supplied by the recurrent laryngeal except cricothyroid)
What is the conus elasticus?
elastic membrane between the vocal ligament and the cricoid cartilage
What are the true vocal folds composed of?
Vocal ligaments, conus elasticus
What is often referred to as the false vocal folds?
Folds of the vestibule.
What is the action of the Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle?
Abducts the vocal folds (opens)
What is the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle?
Adducts the vocal folds (closes)
What is the action of the transverse cricoarytenoid muscle?
Adducts the vocal folds (closes)
What is the action of the cricothyroid muscle?
Tenses the vocal folds
What is the action of the vocalis and thyroartynoid muscles?
Relaxes the vocal folds
By what nerve is the cricothyroid muscle innervated?
External Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve.
What artery does the Superior thyroid artery branch from?
External Carotid Artery
What artery branches off the Superior Thyroid artery to supply the larynx?
Superior Laryngeal Artery
What artery does the Inferior Thyroid Artery branch from?
Thyrocervical Trunk and thus the Subclavian artery.
What are the subdivisions of the larynx?
Vestibule (upper), Infraglottic cavity (lower)
What is the Rima Glottis?
The space between the vocal folds and the arytenoid cartilages. It is the narrowest part of the laryngeal cavity and the location of tracheotomy.
How does the Superior Laryngeal Nerve branch?
Internal Laryngeal Nerve, External Laryngeal Nerve.
What does the Internal Laryngeal Nerve become?
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
What does the internal laryngeal nerve supply?
Mucous membrane from the superior surface of the vocal folds and the area above (sensory)
What does the external laryngeal nerve supply?
Cricothyroid muscle only (motor)
What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve supply?
All intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid (thyroarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, transverse and oblique arytenoids, and vocalis)
What are the muscles of the abdominal wall?
External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transversus Abdominis, Rectus Abdominis
How do the fibers of the External oblique run?
How do the fibers of the Internal Oblique run?
What is the arcutate line?
A horizontal line that demarcates the lower limit of the posterior layer of the rectus sheath at the ASIS
What is notable about the arcutate line aponeurosis?
Fibers run only anteriorly (with respect to the rectus abdominalis).
What is the notable neurosupply of the abdominal cavity?
Iliohypogastric (Lumbar foramin 1). Ilioinguinal (L1)
What are the three important arteries to note in the abdominal cavity?
Musculophrenic, Superior Epigastric, and Inferior Epigastric
What does the Superior Epigastric Artery branch from?
Internal thoracic artery
What does the inferior epigastric artery branch from?
What is the spermatic cord?
Structure that contains structures running to and from the testis and suspense's the testis in the scrotum
What are the structures, from out to in, that make up the spermatic cord?
Skin, Dartos, External Spermatic Fascia, Cremaster Muscle, Internal Spermatic Fascia, Tunica Vaginalis (Parietal), Tunica Vaginalis (Visceral)
What are the contents of the spermatid cord?
ductus (vas) deferens and its arteries, pampiniform plexus (veins), testicular artery, lymph vessels, and the genital branch of the genitofermoral nerve.
What muscle function to raise and lower the testes?
What is Bell Clapper's deformity?
Testis being in a transverse position caused by abnormal testicular torsion.
What are the types of orchiectomy?
Simple (common), Sub-capsular (Common), and Inguinal (Radical)
What is the deep ring of the inguinal canal?
The entrance and passageway of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal.
What is the superficial ring of the inguinal canal?
The exit and passageway of the spermatic cord through the inguinal canal.
In what structure is the deep ring located?
In what structure is the superficial ring located?
Aponeurosis of the External Oblique Muscle.
Describe a Direct Hernia.
Acquire hernia that is caused by pressure on the Inguinal Triangle (Triangle of Hesselbach). The hernial sac passes medial to the inferior epigastric artery.
Describe an Indirect Hernia.
Congenital hernia that is caused by pressure on the deep inguinal ring, thus passing into the inguinal canal and possibly even the scrotum. The hernial sac passes lateral to the inferior epigastric artery.