ENT

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Aerodigestive tract

Medical term for the throat.

Apnea

Cessation of breathing.

Carina

Inferior tracheal cartilage that projects from the tracheal cartilage and bifurcates into the two primary bronchi.

Cholesteatoma

A mass composed of cholesterol and epithelial cells that is either congenital or occurs as a complication of chronic otitis media; located in the middle ear.

Dynamic equilibrium

The ability of the individual to adjust to displacements of the center of gravity of the body.

Epiglottis

The small cartilaginous structure that acts like a lid and closes the passageway to the larynx to prevent food from entering trachea during the act of swallowing.

Epistaxis

Nosebleed. Trauma is the main cause. Excessive drying of the nasal mucosa, over-blowing, picking, hypertension, and chronic inflammation can also be contributing factors of epistaxis.

Glottis

Small opening between the true vocal cords.

Laryngo-

Larynx.

Myringo-

Tympanic membrane.

Olfaction

Sense of smell.

Oropharynx

Pertaining to the oral cavity and pharynx.

Oto-

Ear.

Pharyngotympanic tube

Open tube that links the middle ear to the nasopharynx; it releases pressure pushing against the tympanic membrane and allows the membrane to vibrate.

Polyp

Growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane; often precancerous growths.

Polysomnography

Diagnostic test which physiological variables are measured and recorded during sleep.

rhino-

Nose.

SMR

Submucous resection - surgical procedure done to restore normal breathing.

T&A

Tonsil and adenoidectomy - surgical removal of the tonsils and adenoids.

UPPP

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty - surgical procedure to treat snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

What are the three main regions of the ear?

Outer, middle, and inner ear.

Outer ear

Comprised of the pinna (auricle) and the external auditory canal (meatus). The auricle is the portion of the ear that is visible on each side of the head; it encircles the opening into the external auditory meatus.

Tympanic membrane

Also known as the eardrum, is the separation between the outer and middle ear. It is composed of 3 layers: The outer surface is covered w/epithelium, the central layer is fibrous connective tissue, and the inner lining is mucous membrane. It is disk shaped, normally concave, and has a diameter of 1 cm. It is normally a pearly gray in color, translucent, and has a shiny appearance.

Middle ear

Also known as the tympanic cavity, is an air filled chamber located within the temporal bone. It is lined with a mucous membrane, which is a continuation of the inner layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic cavity houses a series of three tiny bones called auditory ossicles. From lateral to medial there named: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and the stapes (stirrup).

Malleus (hammer)

Articulates with the incus and is attached to the tympanic membrane (eardrum), from which vibrational sound pressure motion is passed.

Incus (anvil)

The middle bone which is connected to the other two, passes vibrations onto the stapes.

Stapes (stirrup)

Articulates with the incus and is attached to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis, the elliptical or oval window or opening between the middle ear and the vestibule of the inner ear.

Mastoid sinus

The air cells of the mastoid sinus are located behind the auricle within the mastoid process of the temporal bone.

Inner ear

The part of the vertebrate ear concerned with labyrinthine sense and sound reception; consists generally of a bony and a membranous labyrinth, made up of the vestibular apparatus, three semicircular canals, and the cochlea. Also known as internal ear and is innervated by the eighth cranial nerve in all vertebrates.

Bony labyrinth

A cavity within the temporal bone, divided into three parts: Vestibule, semicircular canals, and the cochlea.

Vestibule

The central part of the osseous labyrinth, and is situated medial to the tympanic cavity, behind the cochlea, and in front of the semicircular canals.

Semicircular canals

The passages in the inner ear, in the bony labyrinth concerned with the sense of balance, especially the detection of movement. Each ear has three semicircular canals (anterior, lateral and posterior) situated approximately at right angles to each other. They contain the semicircular ducts.

Cochlea

Auditory portion of the inner ear. Its core component is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing. The cochlea is filled with a watery liquid, which moves in response to the vibrations coming from the middle ear via the oval window. As the fluid moves, thousands of "hair cells" are set in motion, and convert that motion to electrical signals that are communicated via neurotransmitters to many thousands of nerve cells.

Membranous labyrinth

Located within the bony labyrinth, also divided into three parts: semicircular ducts and two saclike structures - the saccule and the utricle.

Semicircular ducts

the membranous tubes housed within the semicircular canals.They have enlarged portions at one end, called ampullae, which contain nerve endings, and which are filled with fluid. The semicircular ducts respond to movement of the head. When the head changes position, the fluid in the duct that lies in the plane of movement also moves but, because of its inertia, the fluid flow lags behind the head movement. Thus the fluid presses against the delicate hairs of the nerves in the ampulla, and these nerves then register the fact that the head is turning in such a direction.

Saccule

The saccule, or sacculus, is the smaller of the two vestibular sacs. The saccule is a bed of sensory cells situated in the inner ear. The saccule translates head movements into neural impulses which the brain can interpret. The saccule is sensitive to linear translations of the head, specifically movements up and down (think about moving on an elevator). When the head moves vertically, the sensory cells of the saccule are disturbed and the neurons connected to them begin transmitting impulses to the brain. These impulses travel along the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve to the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem.

Utricle

The utricle is larger than the saccule and is of an oblong form, compressed transversely, and occupies the upper and back part of the vestibule, lying in contact with the recessus ellipticus and the part below it. These use small stones and a viscous fluid to stimulate hair cells to detect motion and orientation.

Deafness

Any reduction of hearing, no matter how slight.

Conduction-type deafness

Occurs when there is an interference with the transmission of sounds from the external or middle ear, preventing sound waves from entering the inner ear. Many of the causes of conduction-type deafness are treatable with medication, surgery, or sound amplification.

Sensorineural deafness

Also referred to as "nerve deafness". This condition involves the cochlear portion of the inner ear and/or the cochlear division of the acoustic nerve. Little can be done to assist these patients, although some of the newer models of cochlear implants show great promise.

Central deafness

Involves the acoustic center of the cerebral cortex.

Mixed-type deafness

Involves both the conduction system and the nervous system. Generally, only the conduction portion of this condition is treatable.

Functional deafness

Said to be of psychogenic nature. No conduction or nerve problem can be identified. Sometimes this condition is referred to as "selective" deafness.

Congenital deafness

Present at the time of birth. This can be hereditary or due to the mother's exposure to disease (such as rubella) or toxic drugs during pregnancy.

Neonatal deafness

Occurs at the time of birth or shortly afterward. Prematurity, trauma, or Rh incompatibility can cause it.

Cerumen

Earwax.

What are the two common causes of obstruction in the ear?

excess earwax and the presence of a foreign body.

Otitis externia

Inflammation of the external auditory canal. A common example is swimmer's ear.

Otoscope

Provides direct vision into the ear canal.

Otitis media

Common acute inflammation of the middle ear, usually initiated by blockage of the Eustachian tube causing an accumulation of fluid which would normally be drained into the the nasopharynx.

Otosclerosis

Occurs when there is a bony overgrowth of the stapes. Eventually the footplate of the stapes becomes fixed for the oval window, preventing the normal sound vibrations from entering the inner ear. This progressive disease is hereditary affecting women more commonly than men.

Mastoiditis

Considered a complication of acute otitis media. The symptoms which include pain and purulent discharge from the external auditory canal, generally develops 10-14 days following acute otitis media.

Myringotomy

An incision into the tympanic membrane for removing accumulated fluid which is often seen with otitis media. This procedure is often accompanied with the placement of tubes.

Myringoplasty

Is a type of tympanoplasty. Tympanoplasty is employed as a solution to a variety of conditions affecting the tympanic membrane and the ossicular chain. There are five classifications for tympanoplasty which are determined by the extent of damage to the eardrum and the middle ear.

Type 1

The damage is limited to the tympanic membrane, All content of the middle ear are intact.

Type 2

The destructive process extends beyond the damaged tympanic membrane to include the malleus.

Type 3

In addition to the damaged tympanic membrane, both the malleus and incus have been affected,

Type 4

All of the ossicles are affected, In addition to the perforated tympanum. The only natural structure of the middle ear is the intact and mobile footplate of the stapes,

Type 5

This situation is similar to type 4 with one exception. The remaining footplate of the stapes is fixed. All ossicles are completely removed.

Mastoidectomy

Is the removal of the bony partitions that form the mastoid air cells. There are 3 types: Simple, modified, and radical mastoidectomy.

Simple mastoidectomy

The removal of the mastoid air cells only.

Modified mastoidectomy

The removal of the posterior and superior walls of the external auditory canal, as well as the eradication of the mastoid air cells. The middle ear remains intact.

Radical mastoidectomy

The removal of the mastoid air cells, as well as the tympanic membrane and the malleus and incus. The middle ear and mastoid cavity are combined. The stapes remains in place; it is usually covered by a temporalis fascia graft.

Iris scissors

Farrior ear specula

Buck ear curettes

Adson bayonet dressing forcepts

Sexton ear knife

Fraizer-Ferguson suction tip

Baron suction tip

House alligator ear forceps

Stapedectomy

Surgical procedure of the middle ear performed to improve hearing with patients with otosclerosis.

Tympanoplasty

Is the surgical operation performed for the reconstruction of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) and/or the small bones of the middle ear (ossicles). Tympanoplasty can be performed through the ear canal or through an incision behind the ear. The surgeon takes a graft from the tissues under the skin around the ear and uses it to reconstruct the eardrum.

Cochlear implants

A prosthetic replacement for the cochlear portion off the inner ear. This type of prosthesis is beneficial for individuals with sensor oriented deafness.

External nose

The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the ethmoid bone and the nasal septum, which consists mostly of cartilage and which separates the nostrils. The tip is referred to as the apex. The base includes the openings or nares and the root joins the nasal bones to the skull superiorly.

Internal nose

The nasal cavity is the interior chamber of the nose and is lined with mucous membrane. It's two outside openings or nostrils are referred to as the external nares. The internal nares are the openings from the nasal cavity into the pharynx, The hard and soft palate, respectively, form the anterior and posterior floor of the nasal cavity, The ending of the soft palate is the uvula.

The nasal cavity is divided into______chambers.

two; anteriorly the septum is cartilaginous, posteriorly the septum has bony attachments to the ethmoid and vomer bones.

Conchae/turbinates

Thin, scroll shaped bony elements forming the upper chambers of the nasal cavity. Provides rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes into the lungs.

Paranasal sinuses

A series of ducts called ostia lead to the paranasal sinuses which are air cavities in the bone surrounding the nasal cavity. The sinuses are lined with mucous membrane that is contiguous with the lining of the nasal cavities. There are 4 pairs of paranasal sinuses: frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary.

Frontal sinuses

Located within the frontal bone behind the eyebrows, and may be one cavity or divided.

Ethmoid sinuses

Located between the eyes and have a honeycomb appearance.

Sphenoid sinuses

Located directly behind the nose at the center of the skull and may be one cavity or divided.

Maxillary sinuses

Located below the eyes and lateral to the nasal cavity.

Rhinitis

Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, usually evidenced by excessive mucous production or rhinorrhea.

Sinusitis

Inflammation of the mucousal lining of the paranasal sinuses.

Nasal polyps

Growths that originate from the mucous membrane. Often the polyps arise from the walls of the sinuses or the ostia and protrude into the nasal passageway. Polyps can be multiple and bad enough to cause nasal obstruction.

Hypertrophied turbinates

Permanent enlargement of the turbinates or nasal conchae may occur as a result of chronic rhinitis. Because of recurring inflammations, the turbinate loses it's normal elastic ability. This can be severe enough to cause nasal obstruction.

Deviated nasal septum

The nasal septum is typically straight at birth. During aging, the septum tends to deviate to one side or the other. The septum may also become deviated due to trauma. The deviation alone doesn't cause the patient to have symptoms but if it is severe enough, the patient may experience difficulty breathing.

Septal perforation

The nasal septum may become perforated due to carcinoma, chronic infection, intractable picking, occupational chemical exposure, or substance (cocaine) abuse.

Joseph nasal scissors

Fomon upper lateral scissors

Knight nasal scissors

Adson tissue forceps

Graefe tissue forceps

Wilde dressing forceps

Halstead mosquito forcepts

Halsey needle holder

Aufricht retractor

Senn retractor

Joseph double hook

Baby allis forceps

Farrel applicator

Vienna nasal speculum

Killian septum speculum

Cottle septum speculum

Maltz nasal rasp

Cottle rasp

McKenty septum elevator

Jansen- Middleton septum forceps

SMR

Submucous Resection - As the name implies, submucous resection indicates that the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity will be incised, and the underlying perichondrium or periosteum lifted. The structures underlying the mucous membrane will be removed the help restore normal breathing.

Septoplasty

Most often done to straighten a deviated nasal septum. It is also used to repair a perforated septum or one damages by trauma.

Turbinectomy

Used to remove a hypertrophic turbinate usually the inferior.

Polypectomy

Removal of nasal polyps.

Intranasal Antrostomy

Performed to treat sinusitis or remove recurrent polyps that originate from within the maxillary sinus.

Polyp snare

Internal Maxillary Artery Ligation

Ligation of the internal maxillary artery is a "last resort" type of procedure. As most cases of severe epistaxis can be controlled with internal packing or electrosurgery.

Rhinoplasty

Nose job.

Sinus endoscopy

A diagnostic procedure. The main advantage to sinus endoscopy is that the surgery can be focused on the area of concern without damaging the surrounding tissues.

Caldwell Luc

Performed when an antrostomy does not provide adequate visualization.

Salivary glands

Secretes saliva - there are 3 pairs of salivary glands that are situated outside the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual.

Amalyse

Secreted by serous cells, a watery fluid that is a digestive enzyme that breaks down carbohydrate molecules, starch, and glycogen into disaccharides.

Parotid gland

Largest of the three glands located on the lateral sides of the face anterior to the external ear.

Submandibular gland

Located inferior to the jaw. It lies on tip of the strap muscles and it also covered by the platysma, integument, and fascia. The excretory gland is called Wharton's duct.

Sublingual gland

Smallest of the three glands. It is located beneath the mucous membrane and covers the floor of the mouth.

Pharynx

Referred to as the throat, is a tubular structure approximately 5 in. in length. The pharynx serves the respiratory tract by receiving air from the nose and mouth, and the digestive tract as it passes food and liquids. The pharynx is lined with a mucous membrane and is contiguous with the nose superiorly.

Nasopharynx

Most superior portion of the pharynx. Located posterior to the nasal cavity, it begins posteriorly to the nares and extends inferiorly to the uvula. The Eustachian tubes enter the nasopharynx and it houses the pharyngeal tonsils.

Eustachian tubes

Enter the nasopharynx from the middle ear. The function of the Eustachian tubes is to equalize the pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane, preventing rupture. They open during yawning, chewing, swallowing, and blowing the nose.

Pharyngeal tonsils

Single mass of lymphatic tissue embedded in the mucous membrane of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. When the tonsils are enlarged they are referred to as adenoids which provide protection against pathogens entering the nose.

Oropharynx

Middle portion of the pharynx, located posterior to the oral cavity, Houses the palatine and lingual tonsils. Oropharynx begins at the uvula, communicating superiorly with the nasopharynx and extends to the level of the hyoid bone. The anterior opening to the oropharynx is the mouth.

Hard palate

Supported by extensions of the maxillary and palatine bones. The interaction between the tongue and the hard palate is essential in the formation of certain speech sounds.

Soft palate

Sits posterior to the hard palate and consists of connective tissue and muscle. It is responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway. During sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth.

Palatine tonsils

Or faucial tonsils, are the two oval masses of lymphoid tissue commonly called the tonsils. The palatine tonsils are located at each edge of the fauces within the folds of two bands of tissue that descend from the soft palate to the base of the tongue, called the tonsillar pillars.

Lingual tonsils

Pair of lymphoid areas located on the posterior surface of the tongue near the base.

Laryngopharynx

Or hypopharynx, is the inferior portion of the pharynx. It begins at the level of the hyoid bone and extends to the lower margin of the larynx.

Larynx

Voice box, located between the pharynx and the trachea.

Trachea

Windpipe, located anterior to the esophagus.

Esophagus

Inferior to the laryngopharynx and posterior to the larynx in the mediastinum. Passes through the diaphragm at the level of the hiatus. The esophagus is encircled with muscle tissue that produces peristaltic contractions to propel a bolus of food toward the stomach.

Sleep apnea

is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep.Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They often occur 5 to 30 times or more an hour. Typically, normal breathing then starts again, sometimes with a loud snort or choking sound. Sleep apnea usually is a chronic (ongoing) condition that disrupts your sleep. You often move out of deep sleep and into light sleep when your breathing pauses or becomes shallow. This results in poor sleep quality that makes you tired during the day. Sleep apnea is one of the leading causes of excessive daytime sleepiness.

Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx, causing a hoarse or gravelly-sounding voice or even an inability to speak.

Laryngeal neoplasm

Cancer of the laryngeal area.

Tracheitis

Inflammation of the trachea, also classified as an upper respiratory infection.

Esophagitis

Inflammation that damages tissues of the esophagus, the muscular tube that delivers food from your mouth to your stomach. Esophagitis often causes painful, difficult swallowing and chest pain. Causes of esophagitis include stomach acids backing up into the esophagus, infection, oral medications and allergies.

Zenker's diverticulum

An out-pouching of the wall of in the esophagus. The patient usually complains of dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. Can be seen on X-ray with contrast or endoscopically.

Pharyngitis

A very common inflammation of the throat which may be either viral or bacterial. Streptococcal pharyngitis "strep throat" is the most common type.

Tonsillitis

May affect the pharyngeal, palatine, or lingual tonsils. Tonsillitits usually refers to the palatine tonsils and it is the palatine tonsils that are removed during the procedure.

Peritonsillar abscess

Peritonsillar abscess formation is a major complication of tonsillitis, resulting from a failed antibiotic therapy or chronic tonsillitis. Patient is in extreme pain and may experience difficulty breathing and referred pain in the ear on the affected side.

Vocal cord polyps

Polypoid corditis can result from chronic laryngitis. The patient complains of chronic hoarseness but exhibits no other symptoms.

Laryngotracheobronchitis

Also know as croup, mostly affects children under the age of 3. The major symptom is a "barking" cough.

Bronchoscopy

A technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. An instrument (bronchoscope) is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. This allows the practitioner to examine the patient's airways for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, bleeding, tumors, or inflammation. Specimens may be taken from inside the lungs. The construction of bronchoscopes ranges from rigid metal tubes with attached lighting devices to flexible optical fiber instruments with real-time video equipment.

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