Why would discussions of race evoke strong passions?
Feelings of guilt, blame, anger, and defensiveness are unpleasant.
Why can counseling and psychotherapy become a sociopolitical act?
When mental health practitioners unwittingly impose their standards without regard for differences in race, culture, gender, and sexual orientation, they may be engaging in cultural oppression.
Multiple dimensions of identiy
(1) all individuals are, in some respects, like no other individuals (2) all individuals are, in some respects, like some other individuals (3) all individuals are, in some respects, like all other individuals
Multicultural counseling/therapy (MCT)
a helping role and process that uses modalities and defines goals consistent with the life experiences and cultural values of clients, recognizes client identities to include individual group, and universal dimensions, advocates the use of universal and cultural specific strategies and roles in the healing process, and balances the importance of individualism and collectivism in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of client and client systems.
(1) one who is actively in the process of becoming aware of his/her own assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, preconceived notions, personal limitations (2) actively attempts to understand the worldview of his/her culturally different client (3) actively developing and practicing appropriate, relevant, and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in working with his/her culturally different client
3 major trends of the diversification of the US
(1) the graying of the workforce (2) the feminization of the workplace (3) the changing complexion of the workforce
(1) belief in superiority (2) belief in the inferiority of others (3) power to impose standards (4) manifestation in institutions (5) the invisible veil
Racial/cultural identity development models (RID)
(1) therapists may often respond to the culturally diverse client in a very stereotypic manner and fail to recognize with group or individual differences (2) the strength of racial/cultural identity models lies in their potential diagnostic value (3) a 3rd impt. component derived from racial identity modes is their acknowledgment of sociopolitical influences in shaping minority identity
self-depreciating or neutral due to low race salience, group-depreciating or neutral due to low race salience, discriminatory or neutral, group-appreciating
Stage 2-dissonance and appreciating
conflict b/w self-depreciating and group-appreciating, conflict b/w group-depreciating views of minority hierarchy and feelings of shared experience, conflict b/w dominant-held and group depreciating, conflict b/w group-appreciating
Stage 3-resistance and immersion
self-appreciating, group-appreciating experiences and feelings of culturocentrism, conflict b/w feelings of empathy for other minority, group-depreciating
concern with basis of self-appreciation, concern with nature of unequivocal appreciation, concern with ethnocentric basis for judging others, concern with the basis of group-depreciation
Stage 5-integrative awareness
self-appreciating, group-appreciating, group-appreciating, selective appreciation
The Helms white racial identity development model
(1) contact status (2) disintegration status (3) reintegration status (4) pseudoindependence status (5) immersion/emersion status (6) autonomy status