central core of an atom
positively charged particle in nucleus
non-charged particle in nucleus
negatively charged particle
the number of protons in the nucleus; this determines the type of atom
sum of protons and neutrons
regions surrounding atomic nucleus that contain electrons; may contain up to eight electrons in each level; energy increases w/ distance from the nucleus
a pure substance; made up of only one kind of atom
a group of atoms boud together in a group
substances whose molecules have more than one kind of atom
form to make atoms more stable: outermost energy level of each atom is full, atoms may share electrons or donate or borrow them to become stable.
form when an atom gains or loses electrons in its outer energy level to become stable.
has lost electrons is indicated by positive sign
has gained electrons. is indicated by negative sign.
form when positve and negative ions attract each other.
molecule that dissociates (breaks up) in water to form individual ions; an ionic compound
form when atoms share their outer energy to fill up and thus become stable. these do not ordinarily easily dissociate in water
molecules contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds
molecules that don't contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds
is a solvent forming aqueous solutions in the body.
chemical reaction in which water is removed from small molecules so they can be strung together to form a larger molecule
chemical reaction in which water is added to the sub-units of a large molecule to break it apart into smaller molecules
always involve energy transfers, as when energy is used to build ATP molecules.
show how reactants interact to form products; arrows seperate the reactants from the products
substance that shifts the Hplus/ OHneg balance in favor of the Hplus; opposite of base
substance that shifts the Hplus/OHneg balance in favor of the OHneg; also known as alkaline; opposite of acid
mathematical expression of relative Hplus concentration in an aqueous solution
7. neither acid nor base.
anything below 7.
anything above 7
occurs when acids and bases mix and form salts.
are chemical systems that absorb excess acids or bases and thus maintain a relatively stable pH
sugars and complex carbohydrates. contain C, H, and O. its function is to store energy for later use.
single sugars (ex. glucose) that make up carbohydrates
double sugar made up of two monosaccharide units (ex. sucrose, lactose)
complex carbohydrate made up of many monosaccharide units (ex. glycogen made up of many glucose units)
fats and oils. made up of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol, proteins,and nucleic acid
made up of one glycerol unit and three fatty acids. store energy for later use.
similar to triglyceride structure, except with only two fatty acids, and with a phosphorus-containing group attached to glycerol. the head attracts water and the double tail does not, thus forming stable double layers (bilayers) in water. form membranes of cells.
molecules have a steroid structure made up of multiple rings. this stabilizes the phospholipid tails in cellular membranes and is also converted into steroid hormones for the body
very large molecules made up of amino acids held together in long, folded chains by peptide bonds
form structures of the body.
is a fibrous protein that holds many tissues together
forms tough, waterproof fibers in the outer layer of the skin
participate in chemical processes. examples: hormones, cell membrane channels and receptors, and enzymes.
help chemical reaction occur in enzymes
lock and key model
each enzyme fits a particular molecule that it acts on as a key fits into a lock.
or lipoproteins. proteins can combine with other organic molecules to form these
made up of nucleotide units, sugar, and phosphate.
deoxyribonucleic acid; used as the cells master code for assembling proteins. uses deoxyribose as the sugar and A, T, NOT U, C and G AS BASES. it forms a double helix shape
ribonucleic acid. used as a temporary "working copy" of a gene (portion of the DNA cod) uses ribose as the sugar and A, U (NOT T), C AND G as bases
maintaining the concentration of hydrogen ions in body fluid
ATP;chemical compound that provides energy for use by body cells; a result of cell respiration
base; any substance that when dissolved in water contributes to an excess of hydroxide ions thus creating a high pH
one of a large group of organic compounds; the building blocks of protein and the ending part of protein digestion
cells making complex molecules (hormones) from simpler compounds (amino acids); opp of catabolism; the other phase of metabolism
of nature of water; watery
combined total number of protons and neutrons
total number of protons in an atom's nucleus; atoms of each element have a characteristic atomic number.
smallest particle of a pure substance (element) that still has the chemical properties of that substance; composed of p,n, and e
the chemistry of living things
one of the 3 major food groups that consist of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. a basic source of energy
breakdown of food compounds or cytoplasm into simpler compounds; opp. of anabolism, the other phase of metabolism
the science dealing with molecular and atomic structure of matter and the composition of substances- their formation, decomposition, and various transformations
steroid lipid found in all body cell membranes and in animal fat; presence of food. a proscursor of steroid hormones.
a substance composed of 2 or more units or parts combined in definite proportions by weight and having specific properties of its own. these are formed by all living organisms and are of two types inorganic and organic
chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons by overlapping their energy levels (electron shells)
chemical reaction in which larges molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together
seperation of ions as they dissolve in water
substance that ionizes (dissociates to form ions) in solution, rendering the solution capable of conducting an electric current; common electrolytes are sodium, potassium, and chlorine
homeostasis of electrolytes
an extremely minute particle with a negative electrical charge that revolves about the central core of nucleus of an atom
pure substance composed of only one type of atom
a functional protein acting as a biochemical catalyst allowing chemical reactions to take place in a suitable time frame
a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion. Within cells, glucose is used for cell respiration.
a polysaccharide, commonly called animal starch, which is the storage form for glucose in the liver and muscles
chemical reaction in which water is added to a large molecule causing it to break apart into smaller molecules
compound whose molecules DO NOT contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
chemical bond formed by the positive-negative attraction between two ions
organic molecule usually composed of glycerol and fatty acid units; types include triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol; a fat, wax, or oil
any substance that occupies space and has mass
particle of matter composed of one or more smaller units called atoms
a simple sugar
the two nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid, found in the cytoplasm, and deoxyribonucleic acid, found in the nucleus; made up of units called nucleotides that each include a phosphate, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base
spherical structure within a cell; central core of the atom, made up of protons and (sometimes) neutrons
compound whose large molecules contain carbon and that include carbon-carbon bonds and/or carbon-hydrogen bonds
covalent bond linking amino acids within a protein molecule
mathematical expression of relative hydrogen ion concentration (acidity); pH value higher than 7 is basic, pH value less than 7 is acidic, pH value equal to 7 is neutral
phosphate-containing molecule found in cell membranes; one end of the molecule is water-soluble and the other end is lipid-soluble
one of the basic nutrients needed by the body; a nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of a folded strand of amino acids
positively charged particle within the nucleus of an atom
any substance entering (and being changed by) a chemical reaction
RNA; a nucleic acid found in the cytoplasm that is crucial to protein synthesis
substance that dissolves into another substance, for example, in saltwater the salt is the solute dissolved in water
substance in which other substances are dissolved; for example, in saltwater the water is the solvent for salt
lipid that is synthesized from fatty acids and glycerol or from excess glucose or amino acids; stored mainly in adipose tissue cells
angiotensin converting enzyme
acute myocardial infarction
acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
certified family nurse practitioner
certified registered nurse anesthetist
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a laboratory test
long term acute care
peripherally inserted central catheter
registered respiratory therapist
skilled nursing facility