is more than percent contained within the first 0 miles from the earth's surface
Which of the following is shown as a heavy blue line with triangles?
Which of the following are used to identify places of equal atmospheric pressure?
By volume, how much more water vapor is there in the Earth's atmosphere than is there carbon dioxide?
What is the residence time of oxygen and nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere?
Which of the following temperature scales is the only one to begin at the zero point?
The troposphere contains what % of the mass of the atmosphere?
is populated primarily by variable gases
This is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere
has little effect on climate
This is NOT a variable gas
has evaporation as its primary source
is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations
are highest in early spring
must give off less carbon than is fixed through photosynthesis if a plant is to experience net growth
absorbs ultraviolet light
has increased in concentration over the last 0 or so years
is considered a serious problem in most developed countries
can be either solid or liquid
0 Aerosols are typically removed from the atmosphere by
This was probably the predominant gas in Earth's earliest atmosphere
The recent alternative explanation for the disappearance of Earth's early atmosphere sees this as the primary causative agent
collisions of Earth with other large bodies
emits large amounts of water vapor
This is the least likely reason for the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
leakage into space from the upper atmosphere
The evolution to an oxygen-rich atmosphere
occurred at the same time the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide were decreasing
The high levels of atmospheric nitrogen are due primarily to the fact that
nitrogen has a very long residence time
will, for a given amount of gas, experience an increase in pressure if the volume of the gas is decreased
is characterized in part by vertical mixing of air
is thicker in summer
0 The highest temperatures are typically found in the
The maximum concentrations of ozone are found in the
The temperature is lowest here
In this atmospheric layer, the temperature is relatively constant for the first 0 kilometers, then it increases
has a low moisture content compared to the troposphere
The ozone layer
absorbs ultraviolet energy
has a low heat content
ends in the thermosphere
The D-layer of the ionosphere
has most of its electrons combined with positively charged ions at night
The aurora borealis
emits light as electrons move from higher orbits around the nucleus to lower ones
0 Of the following planets, which has the most massive atmosphere?
The Martian atmosphere
consists primarily of carbon dioxide
The atmosphere is a mixture of
gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture
Relatively speaking, the earth's atmosphere is
very thin when compared to the earth's diameter
The region of the earth's atmosphere below 0 km is called
The difference between the atmosphere's "permanent" gasses and "variable" gasses is that
permanent gasses exhibit a constant proportion from the earth's surface to higher reaches of the atmosphere
Carbon dioxide is an important variable gas because
all of the above
Ozone is found primarily in the ________ and is important because of ________
stratosphere; its interaction with ultraviolet radiation
The four layers of the atmosphere from the top down are
thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere
The "stratosphere" warms because of
the interaction of ozone and ultraviolet light
0 The "ionosphere" is so designated because
of the electrical charges of atoms associated with it
The percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (by hemisphere varies by season because
all of the above
What do you notice concerning the percentage of permanent gasses throughout the atmosphere (all levels?
It is the same throughout the atmosphere from the surface up
The atmosphere is held in place by
The most costly average annual weather event is
The weather event that annually takes the most human life is the
The most destructive tornadoes are rated as a
At a height of 0 miles, what is the density of the atmosphere when compared to sea level?
The average length of time that individual molecules of a given substance remain in the atmosphere is called the
Which of the following gases is crucial to to the existence of all forms of life?
0 Which of the following would be considered to be a "variable" gas?
The increase in carbon dioxide concentration since the 0s is NOT the result of which of the following?
none of the above
Which of the following will increase given an increase in pressure?
The atmosphere consists of a mixture of gas molecules and precipitation
Only a gas with a long residence time can be in a steady state
Permanent gases typically have fewer types of atoms in their molecules than do variable gases
Variable gases spend most of their time in the homosphere
Water vapor content varies widely over the surface of the earth
Like carbon dioxide concentrations, the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere shows a pronounced seasonal variation
The concentration of ozone in polluted areas is typically much higher than it is in the ozone layer
0 During the spring there is a high level of mixing of the Antarctic atmosphere with air from the northern hemisphere
Most of the changes in the earth's atmosphere took place during the first billion years of the earth's history
Large volcanic eruptions are more likely to bring a cooler climate than a warmer climate
The "pauses" in the atmosphere are typically associated with changes in temperature
Some thunderstorms can extend into the lower stratosphere
A man in a space suit would feel colder in Denver than if he were floating above the earth in the thermosphere
Because of changes in the D-layer at night, most AM radio stations increase the power of their transmitters during darkness
Compared to the earth's atmosphere, Jupiter's atmosphere contains a greater percentage of hydrogen
________ is the most abundant of the variable gases in the atmosphere
0 Photosynthesis removes this gas from the atmosphere ________
Respiration requires the presence of this gas ________
Cattle emit the greenhouse gas ________ through their digestive processes
The ________ were the first producers of substantial amounts of oxygen
The term meteorology
is the study of the atmosphere and its related weather systems
The BEST definition of the term climate is
a comprehensive statistical analysis of aggregate weather conditions in a specific place or region
In the process of scientific inquiry, a theory is best defined as
a hypothesis that has been extensively tested and is generally accepted by the scientific community
An interacting group of parts that is fueled by energy and works to accomplish the movement of matter or energy is called
Which of the following describes a system's response to positive feedback?
The system's operation is enhanced or changed
Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?
collect data; develop hypothesis; test hypothesis; accept/modify/reject hypothesis
00 Dust in the atmosphere is NOT associated with which of the following?
the solar constant
0 On the average, for every km increase in altitude in the troposphere the air temperature
drops about degrees Celsius
0 The most important source of the free oxygen in our atmosphere is
green plants that carry on photosynthesis
0 The vertical temperature structure of the troposphere is described by
0 Water vapor represents what fraction of the air near the Earth's surface?
less than percent
0 The least dense portion of the solid Earth is the
0 The Earth system
includes parts that affect one another
releases oxygen into the atmosphere
0 The troposphere is most likely to be thickest
over the equator
0 The level of the atmosphere with the highest temperatures is the ________
0 The aurora that is visible in the southern hemisphere is the
Which of the following spheres is composed exclusively of water?
The ozone layer is found in the
The summit of Mt Everest ( km is found in the
Radiosondes have been used regularly since
the late 0s
Which of the following is NOT true of radiosondes?
They are launched hourly from nearly every weather station in the United States
In meteorological terminology, the acronym TRMM refers to
the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite
Which of the following associations is INCORRECT?
closed systems?require matter to both enter and leave the system, but not energy
The common boundary where different parts of a system interact is called
Which one of the following is not a term used to designate one of the "spheres" of the Earth's environment?
0 Decay of plants, animals eating, and volcanic eruptions are all part of which major Earth system cycle?
the carbon cycle
The formation of fossil fuels begins when
biomass is deposited and buried with sediment instead of decaying
Air may best be described as
Which one of the following is the MOST abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Which two gases make up a combined total of % of clean, dry air in the homosphere?
nitrogen and oxygen
Scientists believe that a growing amount of this gas in the atmosphere will probably bring about a warming of the lower atmosphere
What best explains the "bumps" seen in the seen in the CO concentrations on the graph above?
Changes in plant growth that result in less CO being absorbed during the dormant season
Which of the following is NOT a variable component of the atmosphere?
This variable atmospheric component can exist in all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas at the temperatures and pressures that normally exist on Earth
This atmospheric component absorbs damaging ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
0 Ninety percent of our atmosphere lies below an altitude of about
With an increase in altitude, air pressure
decreases at a decreasing rate
Atmospheric pressure is caused by
the weight of the air above
When chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs are subjected to sunlight, ________ is released which acts to destroy ozone molecules
Which of the following is the MOST important atmospheric component with regard to the Earth's climate?
The four thermal layers of the atmosphere in order beginning from the surface are
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
The term troposphere literally means
region where air "turns over"
Which of the following associations is CORRECT?
mesosphere?begins at a height of 0 km
The "weather sphere" is in the
The lowest temperatures in the atmosphere exist in the
0 Ozone is concentrated in the
The heterosphere and ionosphere are BOTH found in the
A primary difference between the concepts of weather and climate is the
time period involved
Which of these was NOT involved with the formation and evolution of our present atmosphere?
The approximate altitude of auroral displays is
0 - 00 km
The ionosphere is an atmospheric region defined on the basis of
Which of these is NOT a significant factor in the role played by particles or dust in the atmosphere?
The normal lapse rate applies to the
This country has the greatest variety of weather in the world
The majority of the water outside of the oceans is in the form of
0 The basic elements of weather and climate include all of the following, except
the chemical composition of the air
Which one of the following gases has the greatest effect on weather?
Studies have shown that on average ozone depletion is greatest over this area
protects life on Earth by filtering harmful UV radiation from sunlight
The Montreal Protocol
has already created a reduction in ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere
The first function of water vapor in the Earth's original atmosphere was to
fall as rain and thus cool the Earth's surface
The aurora borealis will most likely be stronger
when there is a lot of solar flare activity
The primary function of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is to
provide satellite data about precipitation in the low latitudes, over both land and water
Climate knowledge can be used to accurately predict weather
The thermosphere is the coldest layer of the atmosphere
0 Weather occurs in the thermosphere
The largest hole in the ozone layer was observed in
Nearly all of planet Earth's mass is in the region known as the hydrosphere
Carbon dioxide's importance in the atmosphere is solely due to its absorption and release of latent heat
Ozone is actually a form of the element hydrogen
Ozone is continually created in our atmosphere by solar radiation
Ozone is a significant atmospheric component in the greenhouse effect
The troposphere is part of the homosphere
The stratosphere is an example of a temperature inversion
The tropopause is found where the air temperature stops decreasing with height
0 The oceans cover about 0 percent of the Earth's surface
Although carbon dioxide is present only in small amounts, it is still more significant meteorologically than the other more abundant gases composing dry air
"Average weather" is an adequate definition of climate
The depletion of stratospheric ozone is primarily a problem only in urban areas
At one time the Earth's atmosphere contained no free oxygen
Scientific hypotheses are rejected when they do not agree with observed data
The atmosphere ends abruptly at an altitude of 0 kilometers
Benjamin Franklin was the first to discover that temperatures do not continually decrease with an increase in altitude
There is no well-defined thermopause
0 Auroral displays increase conspicuously at times when sunspots are most numerous
A scientific hypothesis may be regarded as a tentative explanation of observed facts or events
Vertical motion in the lower atmosphere is strongly related to the environmental lapse rate
The ionosphere is a region within the stratosphere
Weather influences people, but people don't influence weather
The biosphere interacts with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere
The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the last century is due primarily to the burning of fossil fuels
Depletion of the ozone layer leads to increased amounts of UV radiation striking the surface of the Earth
There is a sharp and definable boundary between the atmosphere and outer space
The environmental lapse rate is not constant
0 Satellites do not orbit in the thermosphere because the intense heat would quickly incinerate them
The ions in the ionosphere come primarily from oxygen and nitrogen
Earth is considered a closed system in terms of matter
If a scientific theory is to be accepted and considered useful, it must be able to ________
correctly predict observed facts or events
The stratosphere is home to a layer of gas known as ________
The primary usefulness of satellites in observing the weather is their ability to provide ________
The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place defines the term ________
A lightweight instrument package that is carried aloft by a balloon and transmits data on temperature, pressure, and humidity is called a(n ________
That portion of the atmosphere where the makeup of the air is uniform in terms of the proportions of its component gases is termed the ________
What causes the region of warmer temperatures found in the stratosphere?
Absorption of solar ultraviolet by ozone
00 List four of the basic elements of weather and climate
temperature-humidity-clouds-precipitation-air pressure-wind speed-wind direction
0 The Earth's physical environment is traditionally divided into three major parts, one solid, one liquid, and one gaseous List these three parts
0 What are the two energy sources for the Earth system?
the Sun and the Earth's interior
0 Most weather occurs in this temperature-characterized atmospheric layer, the ________
0 Strong thunderstorms sometimes reach the ________
stratosphere (or tropopause
0 The ________ is characterized by the large quantity of charged particles it contains
0 The planet ________ is characterized by a strong greenhouse effect
0 Air may best be described as ________
0 Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
0 With which of the following is dust in the atmosphere associated?
all of these
0 Which one of the gases listed below is more important meteorologically (that is, is more important in weather processes than the others?
On the AVERAGE, for every km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________
drops about °C
Fifty percent of the gases making up the atmosphere are found below ________
½ miles ( km
The tropopause is the boundary between ________
the troposphere and stratosphere
The triatomic form of oxygen (O is known as ________
Ozone filters out most of the ________ radiation in sunlight
Ozone is concentrated in the ________
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the ________
Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere
The normal lapse rate in the troposphere is about ________ per kilometer
0 The wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth are ________
longer than those emitted by the Sun
The longest wavelengths on the electromagnetic spectrum are ________
At noon on February , the Sun is overhead ________
at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________
Which one of the following latitudes best represents the location where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on April ?
On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space?
Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?
Days and nights are equal in length everywhere
On this date the length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator
The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on ________
The North Pole has a higher noon Sun angle than New York City on this date
none of these
0 The 0° angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Cancer on ________
The 0° angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Capricorn on ________
New York City has its greatest length of daylight on ________
The fall equinox in the Southern Hemisphere occurs on this date
The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on this date
This process involves the movement of a mass or substance
all of these
Earth receives energy from the Sun in this way
Which is a mechanisms of heat transfer?
all of these
The transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity is
On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds?
0 The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ________
water vapor and carbon dioxide
A very important control of the DAILY range of temperature is ________
the amount of water vapor in the air
If the maximum temperature for a particular day is °C and the minimum temperature is °C, the daily mean would be ________
If the maximum temperature for a particular day is °C and the minimum temperature is °C, the daily range would be ________
The annual range of temperature may be described as the difference between ________
the average temperatures of the warmest and coldest months
A place located along a windward coast will probably have ________
cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude
Two cities are located at the same latitude (0° City A is in the Southern Hemisphere and City B is in the Northern Hemisphere Assume the two cities reflect the general characteristics of the hemispheres where they are located Which city should have the warmest winter temperatures?
Two cities are located at the same latitude (0° City A is in the Southern Hemisphere and City B is in the Northern Hemisphere Assume the two cities reflect the general characteristics of the hemispheres where they are located Which city should have the largest annual temperature range?
The annual temperature range at most latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere is much smaller than that in the Northern Hemisphere The reason for this is that ________
there is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere
A Tropic of Cancer B Equator C Arctic Circle D Tropic of Capricorn
0 A conduction B scattering C convection D radiation
A oxygen B nitrogen C hydrogen D argon
A ultraviolet B visible light C infrared D convection
A rotation B scattering C reflection D absorption
Earth's atmosphere ends quite abruptly at an altitude of 0 kilometers
Tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere are collectively called aerosols
More solar energy is reflected back to space than is absorbed directly by the atmosphere
Distance variations between Earth and the Sun are very important in understanding seasonal temperature variations
The higher the temperature of a radiating body, the longer the wavelengths of maximum radiation
0 Fairbanks, Alaska, has more hours of daylight in June than Miami, Florida
Visible wavelengths make up about one-half of the electromagnetic spectrum
If it were not for the inclination of Earth's axis, there would be no well-defined seasons
Snow-covered surfaces have a low albedo
The atmosphere is heated chiefly by radiation emitted by Earth
The annual mean temperature is an average of the twelve monthly means
By adding the daily maximum and minimum temperatures and then dividing by two, the daily range is calculated
The seasonal shift of isotherms is greater over the continents than over the ocean
Isotherms are more irregular in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere
In the Southern Hemisphere, warm currents cause isotherms to be deflected toward the South Pole
0 Annual temperature range decreases with an increase in latitude
In the middle and high latitudes, annual temperature range increases with an increase in continentality
The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is nitrogen
Air is a mixture
The normal lapse rate is °C per kilometer
Ozone is concentrated in the mesosphere
A molecule of ozone contains two atoms of oxygen and one atom of nitrogen
Ozone filters out most of the infrared radiation in sunlight
The state of the atmosphere at any given time and place defines the term ________
The aggregate, or composite, of weather over a long period of time best describes the term ________
0 The form of oxygen that combines three atoms of oxygen into each molecule is called ________
The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is ________
Ozone is concentrated in which atmospheric layer?
Practically all clouds and storms occur in this atmospheric layer
Above the stratosphere is a layer called the ________, where temperatures decrease with an increase in altitude
The line separating the dark half of Earth from the lighted half is called the ________
circle of illumination
The movement of Earth in its orbit around the Sun is referred to as ________
List three mechanisms of heat transfer
conduction, convection, radiation
Located adjacent to red on the electromagnetic spectrum, and having a longer wavelength, is ________ radiation, which we cannot see but which we can detect as heat
The closest invisible wavelengths to violet on the electromagnetic spectrum are called ________ and are responsible for sunburns
0 The transfer of heat by the movement of a mass of substance from one place to another is termed ________
The fraction of the total radiation encountered that is reflected by a surface is called its ________
cloud cover, Sun angle, nature of surface
List the two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere
water vapor, carbon dioxide
The difference between the daily maximum temperature and the daily minimum temperature is known as the ________
daily temperature range
The ________ is calculated by adding together the daily means for each day of the month and dividing by the number of days in the month
The ________ is an average of the twelve monthly means
Lines that connect places of equal temperature are called ________