What must a hypothesis be?
Chromatin is found in what stage?
Cylindrical MT structures that become associated with the poles of the mitotic apparatus during cell division
Synapse occurs when?
Prophase 1 (meiotic)
Exchange of genetic material occurs at
Position on a chromosome where a gene is a located
Resemble simple teeth, remnants of ancestral armor (exterior teeth)
Ampullae of Lorenzini
Detects electrical impulses, direction
Non-respiratory gill slit, lets water enter gills while mouth is closed (When a shark has a hold of its prey)
exit point of water after passing over gills
Males only, transfer sperm to female during teh sexes
sensory organ, detects water movement
secretion of digestive enzymes, insulin
Holds bile for enzymatic digestion
Contains shark's spiral valve, modification of ileum
Purposes of Spiral valve
slows passage of food, increases surface area.
Largest organ, makes bile, metabolizes fat and other compounds, produces/holds large amounts of oil to aid in buoyancy
maintenance of blood
Chambers between internal and external fill slits lined with gill filaments
Elimination of waste, regulation of internal environment
Rectal Gland (S)
Male gonads, sperm production
Transfers sperm from testes
Common chamber receiving the openings of the urinary papilla, uteri, and intestine
Phylum of Shark
Subphylum of Shark
Class of Shark
Distinguishing taxonomic characteristic (S)
Cartilaginous skeletons (Ancesters had bony skeletons)
Senses vibrations, hearing
Covers and protects eye
Attached to anterior of the floor of the mouth
Mech and chem digestion of food, contains rugae
folds that increase surface area of stomach for increased absorption
chem digestion and nutrient absorption
water absorption and fecal packing
How many lobes of liver are in a frog?
What are the 3 parts of the stomach in a shark?
recieves blood from ventricle
Thin layer covering fetus, embryonic skin that peels off as hairs develop
connects placenta with fetus
Urogenital orifice (P)
Common opening for urinary and reproductive systems
Urogenital orifice (p) (Male)
Located posterior to umblical cord
Urogenital orifice (P) (Female)
Located ventral/anterior to anus
Roof of mouth, hard palate is anterior, soft palate posterior
Opening to trachea
cartilage tab that blocks trachea during swallowing
air passage to lungs, cartilage rings
food passage to stomach, muscular wall
Small intestine (P)
contains villi that increase surface area
Number of lobes in Pig pancreas
Houses bacterial symbionts that break down cellulose, homologous to human appendix
collecting points for blood
separates thoracic from abdominal cavities
carries urine from kidney to bladder
Deletion of arm of Chromo 5
Cri du Chat
Males only, do not develop facial, underarm or pubic hair
Down Syndrome symptoms
Mental retardation, eyes slant upward, heart defects
Cri Du Chat symptoms
abnormal larynx development, low birth weight, resp. problems
Turner Syndrome symptoms
Female, short stature, lack of ovarian development, webbed neck, low hairline, arms turn out slightly at elbow
Where does the extra X come from in Klinefelters?
Either mother's egg or fathers sperm (Nondisjunction)
Where does the single X come from in Turner?
Mother's egg, father sperm is missing sex chromosomes
Where does the extra chromosome 21 come from in Down syndrome?
Where does the abnormality in chromosome 5 come from in Cri du chat?
physical exchange between homologous chromosomes, Meiosis 1
Mendel, genes on different chromosomes behave independently
chromosomes that are identical in size, shape, and (except for allelic differences) genetic composition
particular form of a gene
copies of chromosome produced in cell division
physical association of genes on the same chromosome
any chromosome except the sex chromosomes
3 parts of Shark stomach
cranial, fundic, pyloric
Scientific method is composed of how many steps?
significant difference between control/variable then difference must be due to single variable
A causes B Change ind. variable
two factors may vary together but one may not cause the other; change in dep. variable
Null hypo (Ho)
something stating that no change will occur, designed to asses the strength of expected value
Alt. Hypo (Ha)
claim to find evidence for
One sided Alt Hypo
parameter is greater or less than Ho
Two sided Alt. Hypo
parameter is different than Ho
If the evidence is far from expected value
evidence is against Ho (Can not accept)
Chi Squared equation
Basic exp. procedure, brief summary of what was found, and concluded (Hypo w/result)
Background resarch, null hypo,
All that is required to explain exp. should be enough to repeated, Devices/Ingredients (Stat method here as well)
Is a beaker or test tube a device?
Explain the statistical test used, show equation, DON'T SHOW WORK
Tables/Graphs, NO CONCLUSIONS DRAWN
Draw conclusion based on results, accept/reject null hypo, further questions and possible problems, ideas for new experiements
Locus can have multiple ____
phenotype expressed related to chromosome
X inked traits are from
Y linked are from
Steps of cell cycle
Rest (No growth) ex: neuron
First growth period
Synthesis, DNA duplicated
Second growth phase
Parts of mitosis
Interphase 2, rest point between Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2
How far can a shark hear something from, at what frequency is best?
1700yds; at or below 40Hz
Sound travels better in
What is the ratio of blood to water that a shark can detect?
1 molecule of blood/1,000,000 molecules of H20
How far can a shark smell from? Which structure?
How far can a shark detect vibrations? Which structure?
100yd, lateral lines
How far can a shark see something?
Shallow water sharks have ___ eyes while deep water sharks have ____ eyes
At what distance can a shark detect electrical impulses? Which structure?
6ft, ampullae of lorenzini
How much of a volt can the ampullae detect?
100,000,000 of a volt
Sharks teeth are ___ continuously
How many rows of teeth can a shark have?
Bite force of a shark? Closest to
How large and heavy is a whale shark?
50ft, 20 tons
How much water does a whale shark filter in an hour?
.25 million gallons/hour
What is the main diet of the whale shark?
sensory overload, shark goes into a sleep state
Time of the first sharks?
Modern sharks arrived
If a shark has more than 5 pairs of gills it is considered what species?
How many years for a shark to reach sexual maturity?
Gestation of a shark
Eggs of shark?
Few but large
Do sharks have parental care?
Liver of a shark has how many gallons of ___ which is lighter than __
18, oil, water
placoid scales, reduce drag