Made up of 2 monosaccharides. Formed by dehydration synthesis.
Made up of several monosaccharides. 2 types of starches: amylose and amylopectin. Glycogen, Cellulose.
Non polar molecules. Made up of glycerol and fatty acids.
Functions: 1. Source of Energy 2. Cushions for organs 3. Carries important vitamins 4. Main material for hormones 5. Main component of membranes 6. and Insulation of body.
Made up of glycerol and three fatty acids.
single bonds around C atom. Solid at room temp.
double bonds. Liquid at room temp.
make up cell membranes. Has phosphate group making one side polar and soluble.
2 types: LDL (Low density)- 70% of cholesterol. Bad cholesterol
HDL (High density) 30% of cholesterol. Good cholesterol. Lower LDL levels.
Designed to allow food to have long shelf life.
Lower HDL; increase LD levels. Increase chance of heart disease.
Structural units in cell. Repair cells. Make up muscle, nerves, hair, skin, antibodies and enzymes. Made up of amino acids and carboxyl group and R group. 20 dif. amino acids.
Bond b/w carboxyl group of 1 amino acid, and amino group of another. 8 essential amino acids.
Chains of amino acids
temporary change in protein shape., Ex. heating jello?
caused by physical or chemical factors
Permanent change in protein. e.g. boiling an egg
Protein catalysts in cells. Allow reactions to occur at lower temp's; reduce activation energy of reaction.
molecules on which enzymes work on.
Lock and key model
Enzymes have docking areas called active sites; substrate perfectly fits into enzyme.
Induced fit model
resultant shape of active site alters when substrate attaches; tightens fit b/w them.
Factors affecting reaction rate of enzymes (PH)
Change in pH: affects hydrogen bonds and 3-D shape of enzyme. Changes active site. Reaction is high only b/w certain ranges
Factors affecting enzyme reactions (substrate molecule concentration)
Increase # of substrate: increase odds of them colliding; increase rxn rate. If # of substrate surpasses # of enzymes, reaction rate levels off.
Factors affecting enzyme reaction (temperature)
Increase temp=increase reaction rate, more energy of molecules. At high temp[, protein is denatured. reaction rate drops.
Factors affecting enzyme reaction (competitive inhibition)
Molecule has similar shape to substrate; allows them to attach to enzyme; compete for enzyme. Slows down rxn rate
Final products build up; attaches to enzyme regulatory site, alters shape of active site, prevent substrate from bonding; reduces rxn rate
Substrate (initial product) attaches to enzyme regulatory site. Improves fit b/w other substrate and same enzyme. Happens because of build up of substrate;Increase rxn rate.