Chapter 15 Cardiovascular system

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how much blood does the heart pump

7,000 liters of blood through the body each day

how much does heart contract

2.5 billion times in an average life time

how does the heart work

forces blood through arteries which connect to smaller diameter vessels called arterioles. arterioles branch into the tiniest tubes, the capillaries, the sites of nutrient, electrolyte, gas, and waste exchange. Capillaries converge into venules which in turn converge into veins that return blood to the heart, completing the closed system of blood circulation

cardiovascular system

the pump and its vessels

what are the two circuits of the hearts

pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit

what does the pulmonary circuit do

sends oxygen-depleted (deoxygenated) blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide

what does the systemic circuit do

sends oxygenated rich blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes wastes.

what would happen without circulation

the tissues would lack a supply of oxygen and nutrients and wastes would accumulate. such deprived cells soon begin irreversible changes which quickly leads to death

describe the heart

the heart is a hollow cone shaped pump in the mediastinum of the thorax and rests upon the diaphragm

how is heart size determined

an average adult heart is generally about 14 centimeters long and 9 centimeters side

what borders the heart laterally

the heart is bordered laterally by the lungs , posteriorly by the vertebral column and anteriorly by the sternum.

where does the base of the heart located

the base of the heart, which attaches to several large blood vessels, lies beneath the second rib.

where does the heart's distal end extend

the heart's distal end extends downward to the left terminating as a bluntly pointed apex at the level of the fifth intercoastal space.

how do you sense the apical heartbeat

it is possible to sense the apical heartbeat by feeling or listening to the chest wall between the fifth and sixth ribs about 7.5 centimeters to the left of midline

what is the pericardium

or pericardial sac is a covering that encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood vessels to which it attaches.

what does the pericardium consist of

an outer fibrous bag (the fibrous pericardium) that surrounds a more delicate double layered serious membrane.

aed

automated external defibrillator

accelerated heartrate

ventricular tachycardia

chaotic and irregular heartbeat

ventricular fibrillation

myocardial infarction

heart attack

what is an implantable cardioverter defribillator (ICD)

device implanted under skin which monitors heart rhythm and when the telltale deviations of ventricular

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